To respond successfully to a DoS attack, a good incident response plan is needed. This must include details of how to contact technical personal for your Internet service provider(s). This contact must be possible using nonnetworked means, since when under attack your network connection may well not be usable. DoS attacks, particularly flooding attacks, can only be filtered upstream of your network connection. The plan should also contain details of how to respond to the attack. The division of responsibilities between organizational personnel and the ISP will depend on the resources available and technical capabilities of the organization.

Within an organization, you should implement the standard antispoofing, directed broadcast, and rate limiting filters we discussed earlier in this chapter. Ideally, you should also have some form of automated network monitoring and intrusion detection system running so that personnel will be notified should abnormal traffic be detected. We will discuss such systems in Chapter 8. Research continues as to how best identify abnormal traffic. It may be on the basis of changes in patterns of flow information, source addresses, or other traffic characteristics, as [CARL06] discusses. It is important that an organization knows its normal traffic patterns so it has a baseline with which to compare abnormal traffic flows. Without such systems and knowledge, the earliest indication is likely to be a report from users inside or outside the organization that its network connection has failed. Identifying the reason for this failure, whether attack, misconfiguration, or hardware or software failure, can take valuable additional time to identify.

When a DoS attack is detected, the first step is to identify the type of attack and hence the best approach to defend against it. Typically, this involves capturing packets flowing into the organization and analyzing them, looking for common attack packet types. This may be done by organizational personnel using suitable network analysis tools. If the organization lacks the resources and skill to do this, it will need to have its ISP perform this capture and analysis. From this analysis, the type of attack is identified and suitable filters are designed to block the flow of attack packets. These have to be installed by the ISP on its routers. If the attack targets a bug on a system or application, rather than high traffic volumes, then this must be identified and steps taken to correct it and prevent future attacks.

The organization may also wish to ask its ISP to trace the flow of packets back in an attempt to identify their source. However, if spoofed source addresses are used, this can be difficult and time-consuming. Whether this is attempted may well depend on whether the organization intends to report the attack to the relevant law enforcement agencies. In such a case, additional evidence must be collected and actions documented to support any subsequent legal action.

In the case of an extended, concerted, flooding attack from a large number of distributed or reflected systems, it may not be possible to successfully filter enough of the attack packets to restore network connectivity. In such cases, the organization needs a contingency strategy either to switch to alternate backup servers or to rapidly commission new servers at a new site with new addresses, in order to restore service. Without forward planning to achieve this, the consequence of such an attack will be extended loss of network connectivity. If the organization depends on this connection for its function, the consequences on it may be significant.

Following the immediate response to this specific type of attack, the organizations incident response policy may specify further steps that are taken to respond to contingencies like this. This should certainly include analyzing the attack and response in order to gain benefit from the experience and to improve future handling. Ideally, the organizations security can be improved as a result. We will discuss all these aspects of incident response further in Chapter 17.

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