discussion on The importance of intellectual capita

edit only

see the attachment……………….

…………………………………

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Intellectual capital (IC)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ACCUMAA- Advanced Financial Accounting

 

INTRODUCTION

 

In the beginning, under knowledge economics, intellectual capital occupied a special importance on the part of professional writers and researchers in the field of accounting thought, in terms of its concept, representatives, goals and methods of the measurement. Intellectual capital, with its elements, has become one of the purposeful matters, taking it into account when determining the economic value of its assets, measuring its intangible assets, and evaluating its economic performance that believes in dependency on its share prices and increasing competition between these institutions, as well as providing information that is appropriate and reliable on its head.  Some investors see the growth process in the intellectual head, which leads to the rise in the value of the intellectual head. From this standpoint, focus must be placed on intellectual capital as a strategy of transformation from general employment to distinguished employment, even if wages and operating expenses differ for the desired benefits in developing the organization’s business and products. So I will discuss in this research three important points which are the extent Intellectual Capital is accommodated in the financial statements via accounting of Intellectual Capital Standards (IAS 38) intangible assets, the extent intellectual capital is accommodated via mandatory narrative reporting requirements, and the benefits and expenses  that are associated with the voluntary disclosure of intellectual capital information in the narrative sections of corporate annual reports.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE EXTENT INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL IS ACCOMMODATED IN THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS VIA ACCOUNTING OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL STANDARDS (IAS 38 INTANGIBLE ASSETS

Intellectual capital was defined as the possibilities available to the management of the organization related to the capabilities and competence of employees and the intimate relationships with customers, whose use is combined with other material resources. The study also made clear that the intellectual capital is a function of creating value and one of the main pillars of contemporary performance appraisal systems. It is group of unique and dependent knowledge assets based on creative human minds, work requirements and systems, and the relationship with clients that lead to the continuous production of new ideas and methods that achieve added value for the organization and support its competitive capabilities. Daniel Zeghal, Anis Maaloul, (2010).

 

The importance of the study stems from the necessity of accounting for intellectual capital in order to provide information that improves the quality of the accounting information provided to both current and potential investors and creditors and other stakeholders to make sound decisions, in addition to that accounting for intellectual capital contributes to managing its components efficiently and effectively and contributes to  evaluating the overall performance of the facility and maximizing the real wealth of the owners.  A problem of the study was represented in ambiguity and lack of agreement on a clear and comprehensive definition of intellectual capital and its various components, the difficulty of measuring its components using traditional financial measures, and the effectiveness of accounting for intellectual capital in improving the quality of accounting information.  The study aimed at presenting and discussing the concept of intellectual capital and its main elements, demonstrating the importance of accounting for intellectual capital and identifying methods of disclosure in the financial statements, in addition to proposing a template for the list of intellectual capital and its impact on improving the quality of accounting information.  The study used the descriptive approach, the case study method, and suggested a list of the elements of intellectual capital.  The study reached conclusions, including the lack of agreement on a clear and comprehensive definition of intellectual capital and its components, the difficulty of measuring and showing it in the financial statements, due to the traditional accounting system’s reliance on financial and historical indicators and measures that give a view of past events and not future ones. The proposed list of elements of intellectual capital achieves the ultimate goals of the establishment  As profitability, providing excellent services, assisting the management in carrying out its duties efficiently and effectively, providing information for users to make appropriate decisions, the proposed list is considered the elements of intellectual capital a list that is complementary to the traditional financial statements and is not a stand-alone list, contributing with other lists to provide an integrated picture of the facility for all elements of wealth  that you own.  Indra Abeysekera, (2007).

The Intangible Assets Monitors Model:

Some researchers (Zaghloul, p. 26) state that (Sereby 1997) presented this model by classifying the intangible assets into three basic groups:

  • The first group: the group of intangible assets extending from the external structure, and it consists of public relations with customers and suppliers, and the reputation of brands as invisible assets. Sirinuch Nimtrakoon (2015).
  • The second group: intangible assets derived from the internal structure and consists of a broad sector of concepts, models, and automatic and administrative systems that have been formed by individuals and are owned by organizations in general, in addition to internal business networks, organizational culture, and work spirit within the organization. Dipankar Ghosh, Anne Wu (2007).
  • The third group: intangible assets derived from the eligibility of individuals: it refers to the human force that works in various situations and is known as Individual Competence, and it refers to the energies consisting of human resources that work in various situations, and this matter includes education, experience, skill and values, and it is believed that individuals are only agents. The real people within business organizations, and that all assets and structures, whether tangible or intangible, are the product of the action of human power, and ultimately depend on human power for its continued existence. Jan Mouritsen‏, (2003).

 

 

 

 

 

There is a similarity between the balanced performance measure perspective and the intangible assets observer perspective, so both perspectives emphasize the necessity of integrating non-financial measures with financial measures, and both perspectives emphasize the need to classify intangible assets and associated non-financial measures into three types that differ from  Terms of the term are consistent with the content. Norhayati Mat Husin, Keith Hooper, Karin Olesen‏ (2012).

 

The perspective of controlling intangible assets is based on the assumption that individuals are the only income generators within the organization, and that the actions of manpower transform into knowledge structures that may be tangible and may be intangible, at a time when the balanced performance measure is not based on this assumption. Vivien Beattie, Sarah Jane Smith‏, (2010).

 

The perspective of controlling intangible assets is based on a triangular group of these assets, which requires trying to develop some metrics or design some indicators that are associated with the growth of these assets, their renewal rates, and the efficiency of their use.  As for the balanced performance measure perspective, it mainly depends on the insufficiency of financial performance measures alone to measure performance for internal and external purposes. Rather, it must be supported by the other three-axis measures, which are relationships with customers, internal processes, learning and the growth of human assets within the organization. Vivien Beattie, Sarah Jane Smith‏,  (2010).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE EXTENT IC IS ACCOMMODATED VIA MANDATORY NARRATIVE REPORTING  REQUIREMENTS (this question is still not answered through your essay)

 

The intellectual capital is grouped into three large blocks:

 Relational capital: It includes all the relationships and ties that link the tourism company to its environment represented by suppliers, competitors, shareholders, customers, partners, etc.

Human capital: It is the set of skills possessed by employees who perform their duties in the company, such as: talent, knowledge, skills, ability to innovate, and values. Md Habib-Uz-Zaman Khan, Md Mohobbot Ali‏, (2010).

Regulatory capital: It is a set of systems on which the company has been based since its inception and has been developed through experience and professionalism as a series of knowledge acquired over time, which led to achieving significant improvements in performance and providing added value to the company.  It is also called the root of the internal structure, and it is a dimension that integrates organizational knowledge and skills and includes: each of: the organizational structure, methods and procedures used in work, software, databases, research and development systems, company culture and management and direction systems. Vivien Beattie, Sarah Jane Smith‏ (2010).

 

Where human capital is the specialized knowledge preserved in the mind of the distinct human element that is not owned by the organization, rather it is linked to the individual personally. As for intellectual capital: it is the intellectual assets and knowledge which is independent from the personality of the individual and is owned by the organization, that is, what the organization obtained from the element.  Human rights have become within the property of the organization, which in the end contributes to the continuous development of the organization’s performance and maximizes its competitiveness. Vivien Beattie, Sarah Jane Smith‏ (2010).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The importance of intellectual capital:

 

  • Intellectual capital contributes to developing the current situation of the organization, by producing and investing in new ideas and innovations. Catherine A Usoff, Jay C Thibodeau, Priscilla Burnaby (2002).
  • Intellectual capital is the main source of competitive advantage and the factor affecting the success of institutional performance. It also enhances the competitive position of the organization by introducing new products, while reducing costs and the possibility of selling at competitive prices, not to mention improving productivity. Catherine A Usoff, Jay C Thibodeau, Priscilla Burnaby (2002).
  • It works to maximize the intellectual value of the organization, by developing knowledge of the human element in it and making it highly valuable. Catherine A Usoff, Jay C Thibodeau, Priscilla Burnaby (2002).
  • It is considered a scientific force capable of introducing fundamental adjustments to everything in the work of the organization, and keeping pace with the rapid and renewed developments. Catherine A Usoff, Jay C Thibodeau, Priscilla Burnaby (2002).
  • It helps the growth and survival of the organization, by exploiting ideas and opinions, harnessing them for their benefit, and increasing the creativity, in developing products and services that attract customers, and enhancing their loyalty to the organization. Catherine A Usoff, Jay C Thibodeau, Priscilla Burnaby (2002).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE  BENEFITS AND COSTS  ASSOCIATED WITH THE VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE OF IC INFORMATION IN THE NARRATIVE SECTIONS OF CORPORATE ANNUAL REPORTS

 

The department has been interested in studying the impact of the disclosure of intellectual capital on the performance of companies and the decisions of the owners, especially the touch, and has allocated the value of the importance of intellectual capital when defending their investment decisions.  There are many types of species, one of the types of different types of species, and the alternative disclosure of intellectual funds is considered low. Nick bontaist (2003).

 

 

An index is constructed to disclose the information of intellectual capital, which is suitable as a nucleus for a criterion, especially so that there are no shadows of separation.  Thousands of misdemeanors of thousands of people who have relied on field investigation. Ousama Abdulrahman Anam, Abdul Hamid Fatima, Abdul Rashid Hafiz Majdi‏ (2011).

 

Performance evaluation is a prerequisite for making decisions about resource allocation within

Companies, and also to address areas of weakness that emerge as a result of performance appraisal.  There are several metrics associated with measuring performance. The evaluation and measurement of financial performance is one of the axes of performance evaluation, and it will remain the most important evaluation of the extent of the companies’ success and sustainability, despite the existence of other measures of performance are complementary to financial performance. Gregory White, Alina Lee, Greg Tower‏, (2007).

 

Despite some opposition to the optional disclosure of intellectual money, because of the competitive dysfunction, and the reservation of the regulators and the regulatory regulations and the cost of disclosure.  Gregory White, Alina Lee, Greg Tower‏, (2007).

 

The change in the nature of the global economy to focus on intellectual knowledge and technology has not changed to change the nature of corporate work and the method they are only administered, but also changing the nature and quality of information. Traditional financial reporting has been criticized for non-dependence on its own, for failing to accommodate the elements of knowledge and intellectual corporate. Due to restricting accounting standards, intertwined in financial statements, which appears through the widening gap between market value and the carrying amount of companies. Concrete materials have also become the main factor to achieve growth and create wealth. Helen H Kang, Sidney J Gray (2011) Reference has to be included as last name and year (Kang and Gray, 2011). Make sure this is applicable across the document.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION (Make reference to the essay question and include your views on it by using the information given in the essay)

In the end, The human capital of the organization is represented by an elite group of workers who possess a set of cognitive and organizational capabilities and not others. These capabilities enable them to produce new ideas or develop old ideas that enable the organization to expand its market share and maximize its strengths and make it in a position to seize the appropriate opportunity.  The intellectual capital is not based on a specific administrative level alone, and the availability of an academic certificate is not required for whoever is characterized by it. It is used in all the principle of the accounting and the model also, because it impact on the value of the financial information in the company and its standards.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

  1. Nick Bontaist (2003). Intellectual capital disclosure in Canadian corporations, Journal of Human Resource Costing and Accounting 7 (1/2), 9-20.
  2. Helen H Kang, Sidney J Gray‏ (2011), Reporting intangible assets: Voluntary disclosure practices of top emerging market companies, e international journal of accounting 46 (4), 402-423.
  3. Gregory White, Alina Lee, Greg Tower‏, (2007), Drivers of voluntary intellectual capital disclosure in listed biotechnology companies. Journal of intellectual capital.
  4. Ousama Abdulrahman Anam, Abdul Hamid Fatima, Abdul Rashid Hafiz Majdi‏ (2011). Effects of intellectual capital information disclosed in annual reports on market capitalisation‏. Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting.
  5. Catherine A Usoff, Jay C Thibodeau, Priscilla Burnaby (2002). The importance of intellectual capital and its effect on performance measurement systems. Managerial Auditing Journal.
  6. Md Habib-Uz-Zaman Khan, Md Mohobbot Ali‏, (2010). An empirical investigation and users’ perceptions on intellectual capital reporting in banks: Evidence from Bangladesh. Journal of human resource costing & accounting 14 (1), 48-69.
  7. Vivien Beattie, Sarah Jane Smith‏ (2010). Human capital, value creation and disclosure‏. Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting.
  8. Daniel Zeghal, Anis Maaloul, (2010). Intellectual capital reporting between a developing and developed nation. Journal of Intellectual Capital.
  9. Sirinuch Nimtrakoon (2015). The relationship between intellectual capital, firms’ market value and financial performance‏. Journal of Intellectual Capital.
  10. Dipankar Ghosh, Anne Wu (2007). Intellectual capital and capital markets: additional evidence‏. Journal of Intellectual Capital.
  11. Jan Mouritsen‏, (2003) Intellectual capital and the capital market: the circulability of intellectual capital‏. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal.
  12. Norhayati Mat Husin, Keith Hooper, Karin Olesen‏ ,(2012). Analysis of intellectual capital disclosure–an illustrative. Journal of Intellectual Capital.
  13. Sarah Jane Smith‏, (2010). Human capital, value creation and disclosure‏. Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Intellectual capital (IC)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ACCUMAA- Advanced Financial Accounting

 

INTRODUCTION

 

In the beginning, under knowledge economics, intellectual capital occupied a special importance on the part of professional writers and researchers in the field of accounting thought, in terms of its concept, representatives, goals and methods of the measurement. Intellectual capital, with its elements, has become one of the purposeful matters, taking it into account when determining the economic value of its assets, measuring its intangible assets, and evaluating its economic performance that believes in dependency on its share prices and increasing competition between these institutions, as well as providing information that is appropriate and reliable on its head.  Some investors see the growth process in the intellectual head, which leads to the rise in the value of the intellectual head. From this standpoint, focus must be placed on intellectual capital as a strategy of transformation from general employment to distinguished employment, even if wages and operating expenses differ for the desired benefits in developing the organization’s business and products. So I will discuss in this research three important points which are the extent Intellectual Capital is accommodated in the financial statements via accounting of Intellectual Capital Standards (IAS 38) intangible assets, the extent intellectual capital is accommodated via mandatory narrative reporting requirements, and the benefits and expenses  that are associated with the voluntary disclosure of intellectual capital information in the narrative sections of corporate annual reports.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE EXTENT INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL IS ACCOMMODATED IN THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS VIA ACCOUNTING OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL STANDARDS (IAS 38 INTANGIBLE ASSETS

Intellectual capital was defined as the possibilities available to the management of the organization related to the capabilities and competence of employees and the intimate relationships with customers, whose use is combined with other material resources. The study also made clear that the intellectual capital is a function of creating value and one of the main pillars of contemporary performance appraisal systems. It is group of unique and dependent knowledge assets based on creative human minds, work requirements and systems, and the relationship with clients that lead to the continuous production of new ideas and methods that achieve added value for the organization and support its competitive capabilities. Daniel Zeghal, Anis Maaloul, (2010).

 

The importance of the study stems from the necessity of accounting for intellectual capital in order to provide information that improves the quality of the accounting information provided to both current and potential investors and creditors and other stakeholders to make sound decisions, in addition to that accounting for intellectual capital contributes to managing its components efficiently and effectively and contributes to  evaluating the overall performance of the facility and maximizing the real wealth of the owners.  A problem of the study was represented in ambiguity and lack of agreement on a clear and comprehensive definition of intellectual capital and its various components, the difficulty of measuring its components using traditional financial measures, and the effectiveness of accounting for intellectual capital in improving the quality of accounting information.  The study aimed at presenting and discussing the concept of intellectual capital and its main elements, demonstrating the importance of accounting for intellectual capital and identifying methods of disclosure in the financial statements, in addition to proposing a template for the list of intellectual capital and its impact on improving the quality of accounting information.  The study used the descriptive approach, the case study method, and suggested a list of the elements of intellectual capital.  The study reached conclusions, including the lack of agreement on a clear and comprehensive definition of intellectual capital and its components, the difficulty of measuring and showing it in the financial statements, due to the traditional accounting system’s reliance on financial and historical indicators and measures that give a view of past events and not future ones. The proposed list of elements of intellectual capital achieves the ultimate goals of the establishment  As profitability, providing excellent services, assisting the management in carrying out its duties efficiently and effectively, providing information for users to make appropriate decisions, the proposed list is considered the elements of intellectual capital a list that is complementary to the traditional financial statements and is not a stand-alone list, contributing with other lists to provide an integrated picture of the facility for all elements of wealth  that you own.  Indra Abeysekera, (2007).

The Intangible Assets Monitors Model:

Some researchers (Zaghloul, p. 26) state that (Sereby 1997) presented this model by classifying the intangible assets into three basic groups:

  • The first group: the group of intangible assets extending from the external structure, and it consists of public relations with customers and suppliers, and the reputation of brands as invisible assets. Sirinuch Nimtrakoon (2015).
  • The second group: intangible assets derived from the internal structure and consists of a broad sector of concepts, models, and automatic and administrative systems that have been formed by individuals and are owned by organizations in general, in addition to internal business networks, organizational culture, and work spirit within the organization. Dipankar Ghosh, Anne Wu (2007).
  • The third group: intangible assets derived from the eligibility of individuals: it refers to the human force that works in various situations and is known as Individual Competence, and it refers to the energies consisting of human resources that work in various situations, and this matter includes education, experience, skill and values, and it is believed that individuals are only agents. The real people within business organizations, and that all assets and structures, whether tangible or intangible, are the product of the action of human power, and ultimately depend on human power for its continued existence. Jan Mouritsen‏, (2003).

 

 

 

 

 

There is a similarity between the balanced performance measure perspective and the intangible assets observer perspective, so both perspectives emphasize the necessity of integrating non-financial measures with financial measures, and both perspectives emphasize the need to classify intangible assets and associated non-financial measures into three types that differ from  Terms of the term are consistent with the content. Norhayati Mat Husin, Keith Hooper, Karin Olesen‏ (2012).

 

The perspective of controlling intangible assets is based on the assumption that individuals are the only income generators within the organization, and that the actions of manpower transform into knowledge structures that may be tangible and may be intangible, at a time when the balanced performance measure is not based on this assumption. Vivien Beattie, Sarah Jane Smith‏, (2010).

 

The perspective of controlling intangible assets is based on a triangular group of these assets, which requires trying to develop some metrics or design some indicators that are associated with the growth of these assets, their renewal rates, and the efficiency of their use.  As for the balanced performance measure perspective, it mainly depends on the insufficiency of financial performance measures alone to measure performance for internal and external purposes. Rather, it must be supported by the other three-axis measures, which are relationships with customers, internal processes, learning and the growth of human assets within the organization. Vivien Beattie, Sarah Jane Smith‏,  (2010).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE EXTENT IC IS ACCOMMODATED VIA MANDATORY NARRATIVE REPORTING  REQUIREMENTS (this question is still not answered through your essay)

 

The intellectual capital is grouped into three large blocks:

 Relational capital: It includes all the relationships and ties that link the tourism company to its environment represented by suppliers, competitors, shareholders, customers, partners, etc.

Human capital: It is the set of skills possessed by employees who perform their duties in the company, such as: talent, knowledge, skills, ability to innovate, and values. Md Habib-Uz-Zaman Khan, Md Mohobbot Ali‏, (2010).

Regulatory capital: It is a set of systems on which the company has been based since its inception and has been developed through experience and professionalism as a series of knowledge acquired over time, which led to achieving significant improvements in performance and providing added value to the company.  It is also called the root of the internal structure, and it is a dimension that integrates organizational knowledge and skills and includes: each of: the organizational structure, methods and procedures used in work, software, databases, research and development systems, company culture and management and direction systems. Vivien Beattie, Sarah Jane Smith‏ (2010).

 

Where human capital is the specialized knowledge preserved in the mind of the distinct human element that is not owned by the organization, rather it is linked to the individual personally. As for intellectual capital: it is the intellectual assets and knowledge which is independent from the personality of the individual and is owned by the organization, that is, what the organization obtained from the element.  Human rights have become within the property of the organization, which in the end contributes to the continuous development of the organization’s performance and maximizes its competitiveness. Vivien Beattie, Sarah Jane Smith‏ (2010).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The importance of intellectual capital:

 

  • Intellectual capital contributes to developing the current situation of the organization, by producing and investing in new ideas and innovations. Catherine A Usoff, Jay C Thibodeau, Priscilla Burnaby (2002).
  • Intellectual capital is the main source of competitive advantage and the factor affecting the success of institutional performance. It also enhances the competitive position of the organization by introducing new products, while reducing costs and the possibility of selling at competitive prices, not to mention improving productivity. Catherine A Usoff, Jay C Thibodeau, Priscilla Burnaby (2002).
  • It works to maximize the intellectual value of the organization, by developing knowledge of the human element in it and making it highly valuable. Catherine A Usoff, Jay C Thibodeau, Priscilla Burnaby (2002).
  • It is considered a scientific force capable of introducing fundamental adjustments to everything in the work of the organization, and keeping pace with the rapid and renewed developments. Catherine A Usoff, Jay C Thibodeau, Priscilla Burnaby (2002).
  • It helps the growth and survival of the organization, by exploiting ideas and opinions, harnessing them for their benefit, and increasing the creativity, in developing products and services that attract customers, and enhancing their loyalty to the organization. Catherine A Usoff, Jay C Thibodeau, Priscilla Burnaby (2002).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE  BENEFITS AND COSTS  ASSOCIATED WITH THE VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE OF IC INFORMATION IN THE NARRATIVE SECTIONS OF CORPORATE ANNUAL REPORTS

 

The department has been interested in studying the impact of the disclosure of intellectual capital on the performance of companies and the decisions of the owners, especially the touch, and has allocated the value of the importance of intellectual capital when defending their investment decisions.  There are many types of species, one of the types of different types of species, and the alternative disclosure of intellectual funds is considered low. Nick bontaist (2003).

 

 

An index is constructed to disclose the information of intellectual capital, which is suitable as a nucleus for a criterion, especially so that there are no shadows of separation.  Thousands of misdemeanors of thousands of people who have relied on field investigation. Ousama Abdulrahman Anam, Abdul Hamid Fatima, Abdul Rashid Hafiz Majdi‏ (2011).

 

Performance evaluation is a prerequisite for making decisions about resource allocation within

Companies, and also to address areas of weakness that emerge as a result of performance appraisal.  There are several metrics associated with measuring performance. The evaluation and measurement of financial performance is one of the axes of performance evaluation, and it will remain the most important evaluation of the extent of the companies’ success and sustainability, despite the existence of other measures of performance are complementary to financial performance. Gregory White, Alina Lee, Greg Tower‏, (2007).

 

Despite some opposition to the optional disclosure of intellectual money, because of the competitive dysfunction, and the reservation of the regulators and the regulatory regulations and the cost of disclosure.  Gregory White, Alina Lee, Greg Tower‏, (2007).

 

The change in the nature of the global economy to focus on intellectual knowledge and technology has not changed to change the nature of corporate work and the method they are only administered, but also changing the nature and quality of information. Traditional financial reporting has been criticized for non-dependence on its own, for failing to accommodate the elements of knowledge and intellectual corporate. Due to restricting accounting standards, intertwined in financial statements, which appears through the widening gap between market value and the carrying amount of companies. Concrete materials have also become the main factor to achieve growth and create wealth. Helen H Kang, Sidney J Gray (2011) Reference has to be included as last name and year (Kang and Gray, 2011). Make sure this is applicable across the document.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION (Make reference to the essay question and include your views on it by using the information given in the essay)

In the end, The human capital of the organization is represented by an elite group of workers who possess a set of cognitive and organizational capabilities and not others. These capabilities enable them to produce new ideas or develop old ideas that enable the organization to expand its market share and maximize its strengths and make it in a position to seize the appropriate opportunity.  The intellectual capital is not based on a specific administrative level alone, and the availability of an academic certificate is not required for whoever is characterized by it. It is used in all the principle of the accounting and the model also, because it impact on the value of the financial information in the company and its standards.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

  1. Nick Bontaist (2003). Intellectual capital disclosure in Canadian corporations, Journal of Human Resource Costing and Accounting 7 (1/2), 9-20.
  2. Helen H Kang, Sidney J Gray‏ (2011), Reporting intangible assets: Voluntary disclosure practices of top emerging market companies, e international journal of accounting 46 (4), 402-423.
  3. Gregory White, Alina Lee, Greg Tower‏, (2007), Drivers of voluntary intellectual capital disclosure in listed biotechnology companies. Journal of intellectual capital.
  4. Ousama Abdulrahman Anam, Abdul Hamid Fatima, Abdul Rashid Hafiz Majdi‏ (2011). Effects of intellectual capital information disclosed in annual reports on market capitalisation‏. Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting.
  5. Catherine A Usoff, Jay C Thibodeau, Priscilla Burnaby (2002). The importance of intellectual capital and its effect on performance measurement systems. Managerial Auditing Journal.
  6. Md Habib-Uz-Zaman Khan, Md Mohobbot Ali‏, (2010). An empirical investigation and users’ perceptions on intellectual capital reporting in banks: Evidence from Bangladesh. Journal of human resource costing & accounting 14 (1), 48-69.
  7. Vivien Beattie, Sarah Jane Smith‏ (2010). Human capital, value creation and disclosure‏. Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting.
  8. Daniel Zeghal, Anis Maaloul, (2010). Intellectual capital reporting between a developing and developed nation. Journal of Intellectual Capital.
  9. Sirinuch Nimtrakoon (2015). The relationship between intellectual capital, firms’ market value and financial performance‏. Journal of Intellectual Capital.
  10. Dipankar Ghosh, Anne Wu (2007). Intellectual capital and capital markets: additional evidence‏. Journal of Intellectual Capital.
  11. Jan Mouritsen‏, (2003) Intellectual capital and the capital market: the circulability of intellectual capital‏. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal.
  12. Norhayati Mat Husin, Keith Hooper, Karin Olesen‏ ,(2012). Analysis of intellectual capital disclosure–an illustrative. Journal of Intellectual Capital.
  13. Sarah Jane Smith‏, (2010). Human capital, value creation and disclosure‏. Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool’s honor code & terms of service.

Get professional assignment help cheaply

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer.

Why choose our academic writing service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

 


Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

fast coursework help

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

How It Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essayPLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH ASSIGNMENT DEN TODAY AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUNT

order custom essay paper
Order a unique copy of this paper
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

We value our customers and so we ensure that what we do is 100% original..
With us you are guaranteed of quality work done by our qualified experts.Your information and everything that you do with us is kept completely confidential.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

The Product ordered is guaranteed to be original. Orders are checked by the most advanced anti-plagiarism software in the market to assure that the Product is 100% original. The Company has a zero tolerance policy for plagiarism.

Read more

Free-revision policy

The Free Revision policy is a courtesy service that the Company provides to help ensure Customer’s total satisfaction with the completed Order. To receive free revision the Company requires that the Customer provide the request within fourteen (14) days from the first completion date and within a period of thirty (30) days for dissertations.

Read more

Privacy policy

The Company is committed to protect the privacy of the Customer and it will never resell or share any of Customer’s personal information, including credit card data, with any third party. All the online transactions are processed through the secure and reliable online payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By placing an order with us, you agree to the service we provide. We will endear to do all that it takes to deliver a comprehensive paper as per your requirements. We also count on your cooperation to ensure that we deliver on this mandate.

Read more

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Open chat
1
You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp! Via +1 817 953 0426

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.

Order your essay today and save 20% with the discount code VICTORY