Art Appreciation-Graphic design notes

ART 1301, Art Appreciation I 1

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit V Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

2. Examine the characteristics of works of art, including the purpose and structure of the work. 2.1 Analyze photography’s function in art, including those individuals who contributed historically to

photography. 2.2 Explain the use of color in a given artwork. 2.3 Interpret everyday products that integrate utility, technology, and cutting edge design.

4. Analyze artworks using the application of media, techniques, and processes.

4.1 Identify the emerging disciplines of motion graphics and interactive design. 4.2 Identify the use of letters and typography.

 

Reading Assignment Chapter 9: Photography Chapter 11: Design Disciplines Click here to access the Unit V Video titled, “Art Theories.” Click here to access the script of the Unit V Video. The below link contains an interactive audio that will further explain black and white photography: Pearson Education. (n.d.). Technique: Black and white photography [Audiovisual webpage]. Retrieved from

http://closerlook.pearsoncmg.com/view.php?type=closerlook&id=548 Click here to access the Closer Look video titled “Technique: Black and White Photography.” Click here to view the video transcript.

Unit Lesson Chapter 9: Photography The word photography means writing or drawing with light. Cameras originated from the concept that light passing through a small hole in a darkened box projects the upside down image of whatever is outside the box onto the opposite wall inside. You might have tried this experiment in a class or scouts when you were younger. The concept has been used since the 15th century, when artists were seeking ways to make their artwork more realistic. The addition of a lens improved clarity of the image. The addition of a mirror reflected the image to be right side up. However, it was the discovery of light sensitive chemicals that made photography possible. The first photographs were produced on metal sheets in the 1800s. Photography was a significant invention because it allowed artworks to be accessible to ordinary people. Many artists were concerned that they would no longer be necessary. Instead, photography enhanced the tools available to artists. Previously, only wealthy people could afford to have their portraits painted. Photography made portraits more available to all people, although the early portraits looked quite stiff

UNIT V STUDY GUIDE

Design Disciplines and Photography

 

 

 

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because they required people to not blink for several seconds. Due to the timing of the invention of photography in the 19th century, photography captured some of the battle scenes in the Civil War. Social Change

In the early 1900s, photographers captured social conditions, which helped lead to social welfare laws and improved living and working conditions for people. Sometimes the photographer captured iconic images such as the one shown above by Margaret Bourke-White (Louisville Flood Victims in 1937). At this time, photographs were considered a vehicle to capture the truth, and there is a well-known saying: The camera never lies.

(Frank, 2014a, slide 25)

 

 

 

 

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An advocate of another type of change was Ansel Adams, who photographed the western landscape (as shown in the image above). His purpose was to make Americans aware of the need to conserve the natural environment. His photographs are renowned for capturing the grandeur of Yosemite National Park with its stark contrasts of sharp rockface and rolling water or clouds. Color Photography Up until the early 20th century, all photographs were monotone—usually black and white. Originally, color photography was not possible to produce, but even when it became available, many artists desired the sharp contrast available in black and white photographs. For printing processes, such as newspapers, black and white made better reproductions. Color transparencies were invented in 1907, and color film was available in 1932. The Eastman Kodak Company developed Kodachrome film in 1936 “which substantially improved the versatility and accuracy of color photography” (Frank, 2014, p. 153). Color film became popular for family snapshots and vacations. It was not accepted as artwork until an exhibit in 1976 at the Museum of Modern Art. Digital Age of Photography With the onset of the 21st century, digital technology came into many realms. Telephones changed from rotary dial to digital, and newspapers changed from setting typeface to computers. Film negatives gave way to digital imprints. Camera lenses began to focus “information onto an array of sensors that translate the hue and intensity of light into digital files” (Frank, 2014, p. 156). By using software photo editing programs, the digital files (such as .tif, gif., or jpeg.) could be manipulated and prepared for insertion into documents. Since photos could now be edited in color or content with elements added or subtracted, a photograph is no longer a statement of truth. It is a tool for artists to use in creating art. Chapter 11: Graphic Design When you think of graphic design, you might think of people sitting at computers and “drawing” on the screen, or maybe you think of advertisements. However, graphic design is much more than that. We encounter graphic design more frequently in our daily lives than any other artform. If you look around, you will see interactive design on your phone or computer, clothing design in your clothes, textile design on the patterns of

 

 

 

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your clothes or furniture, logo designs on just about everything, and product design for everything! Graphic design is all around us. One of the basic purposes of graphic design is to enhance visual communication through words and pictures. It uses the creative process, employing art and technology to generate and promote ideas. This is why we usually just think about graphic design with advertising. This chapter, we will discuss a few of the main areas of graphic design. Corporate logos: How many times have you recognized a product just from seeing the logo or just by seeing half of the logo? A corporate logo is an identifying mark, or trademark, based on letter forms combined with pictorial elements (Frank, 2014c). If you do not think you would recognize many logos if you saw them, check out the alphabet in the textbook on page 177. You will probably know more than you think, and that just shows grocery logos! When designing logos, graphic designers are concerned with making an eye-catching and visually appealing logo. Many times, bright colors and easy-to-recognize symbols will be used. Typography: Ever wonder who makes up all of the fonts we use on a daily basis? Graphic designers create numerous fonts that are used on anything from blogs to posters. Sometimes we do not notice the typography or font that is being used until it has done its job. Think about a poster or advertisement. What kind of font did it have? Was a rustic font used for a canoe advertisement? If you were reading a scary book, did the cover image have words that gave a scary vibe? When you go back and take another look at font (even the font used in certain apps), it seems like the possibilities with fonts start to grow.

Posters and other graphics: A poster is a concise visual announcement that provides information through the integrated design of typographic and pictorial imagery (Frank, 2014c). Most of us think of posters hanging on bedroom walls, but if you think of a bigger picture, posters provide lots of information for concerts and movies and even advertise for books or magazines. Billboards are massive posters that need to be short, sweet, and visually appealing. Graphic designers need to find a way to use the limited space in a poster without sacrificing information. If we go one step further, consider any 2-D design that needs to communicate information within a small space: book covers, album covers, magazine covers, and business cards. Graphic designers are constantly

(Frank, 2014b, slide 18)

 

 

 

 

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thinking of ways to branch out. Advertisements on taxis are becoming popular—as are QR codes on buildings.

References Frank, P. (2014a). Chapter 9: Photography [PowerPoint slides]. Boston, MA: Pearson Frank, P. (2014b). Chapter 11: Design disciplines [PowerPoint slides]. Boston, MA: Pearson Frank, P. (2014c). Prebles’ artforms: An introduction to the visual arts (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson

Suggested Reading If you would like to study the content from the required reading further, consider reviewing the below PowerPoint presentations. The presentations include images of the artwork discussed in the chapter and explanations: Click here to access the Chapter 9 PowerPoint Presentation. Click here for a PDF version of the presentation. Click here to access the Chapter 11 PowerPoint Presentation. Click here for a PDF version of the presentation.

 

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