Chapter 12-Sculpture-NOTES -Prebles’ Artforms

 

Prebles’ Artforms

Twelfth Edition

Chapter 12

Sculpture

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Learning Objectives

12.1 Compare examples of freestanding, low-relief, and high-relief sculpture.

12.2 Describe modeling, casting, carving, and constructive techniques used to make sculpture.

12.3 Define and describe kinetic sculpture.

12.4 Explain the parameters and components of mixed media sculpture.

12.5 Discuss artists’ use of installation and site-specific art to transform their surroundings.

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Introduction

Martin Puryear, C.F.A.O.

Unpainted stack of wood on one side

Large, curving shape based on an elongated African mask on the other

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Freestyle and Relief Sculpture (1 of 4)

12.1 Compare examples of freestanding, low-relief, and high-relief sculpture.

Sculpture is a work in three dimensions.

Height, breadth, depth

Experience existing in space

Two main types: freestanding and relief

Freestanding or in-the-round

Sculpture meant to be seen from all sides

Relief

Sculpture projects from a background surface

Low-relief (bas relief)

Slight projection

The Apollo coin

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4

Martin Puryear. C.F.A.O. 2006–7. Painted and unpainted pine and found wheelbarrow. 8’5” × 6’5-1/2” × 61”. The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Photograph: Richard Goodbody. © Martin Puryear. Courtesy of the Matthew Marks Gallery. [Fig. 12-1]

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Freestyle and Relief Sculpture (2 of 4)

12.1 Compare examples of freestanding, low-relief, and high-relief sculpture.

Freestanding or in-the-round

Sculpture meant to be seen from all sides

Relief

Sculpture projects from a background surface

Low-relief (bas relief)

Slight projection

The Apollo coin

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6

Silver Coin with Apollo. c.400 BCE.

British Museum 1896,0601.18. © The Trustees of the British Museum. [Fig. 12-2]

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Freestyle and Relief Sculpture (3 of 4)

12.1 Compare examples of freestanding, low-relief, and high-relief sculpture.

Relief

Low-relief (bas relief)

Temple complex of Angkor Wat, the center of Khmer empire in 12th century

Army on the March

Delicate low-relief carving

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Army on the March. Relief from Angkor Wat, Cambodia. 1100–50. Sandstone. Photographer: Eliot Elisofan. Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images. [Fig. 12-3]

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Freestyle and Relief Sculpture (4 of 4)

12.1 Compare examples of freestanding, low-relief, and high-relief sculpture.

Relief

High-relief

More than half of the natural circumference projects from surface

Corporate Wars: Wall of Influence

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10

Robert Longo. Corporate Wars: Wall of Influence. 1982. Middle portion. Cast aluminum. 7’ × 9’. Courtesy of the artist and Metro Pictures. [Fig. 12-4]

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Methods and Materials (1 of 15)

12.2 Describe modeling, casting, carving, and constructive techniques used to make sculpture.

Modeling

An additive process of building up material such as clay, wax, or plaster

Ballplayer with Three-Part Yoke and Bird Headdress

Naturalistic clay sculpture

Fingerprint impressions visible

Armature

A rigid inner support under soft materials

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Ballplayer with Three-Part Yoke and Bird Headdress. Maya Classic period, 600–800 CE. Ceramic with traces of blue pigment. 13-15/32” × 7”. Princeton University Art Museum. Museum purchase, Fowler McCormick, Class of 1921 Fund, in honor of Gillett G. Griffin on his 70th birthday. 1998–36. Photo by Bruce M. White. © 2018. Princeton University Art Museum/Art Resource NY/Scala, Florence. [Fig. 12-5]

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Methods and Materials (2 of 15)

12.2 Describe modeling, casting, carving, and constructive techniques used to make sculpture.

Modeling

Auguste Rodin, Naked Balzac

Small armature

Gradually added plaster

When plaster dried, he removed the armature

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Auguste Rodin. Naked Balzac. 1892–93.

Plaster painted with varnish. Height 29-3/4”. Rodin Museum, Philadelphia. 1971-142-1. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pennsylvania, PA, USA/Bridgeman Images. [Fig. 12-6]

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Methods and Materials (3 of 15)

12.2 Describe modeling, casting, carving, and constructive techniques used to make sculpture.

Modeling

Ken Price, Vink

Non-representational

Clay layered in acrylic paint

Mysterious, iridescent quality

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Ken Price. Vink. 2009. Acrylic on fired ceramic. 9” × 20” × 11”. © Ken Price. Courtesy of L.A. Louver, Venice, CA. [Fig. 12-7]

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Methods and Materials (4 of 15)

12.2 Describe modeling, casting, carving, and constructive techniques used to make sculpture.

Casting

Process involving the substitution of one material for another

Developed in ancient China, Greece, parts of Africa

Used extensively in the West from Renaissance times

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Methods and Materials (5 of 15)

12.2 Describe modeling, casting, carving, and constructive techniques used to make sculpture.

Casting

Steps

Mold taken from original work

Completely surrounds the original

Original sculpture removed from the mold

May require disassembly

Casting liquid poured into mold cavity

Mold removed when liquid hardens

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The Lost-Wax Casting Process. [Fig. 12-8]

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Methods and Materials (6 of 15)

12.2 Describe modeling, casting, carving, and constructive techniques used to make sculpture.

Casting

Lost-wax process

Mold only used once and destroyed to remove the hardened cast

Solid or hollow

Many items other than art are cast.

Engine parts, dishes, children’s toys

Charles Ray, Father Figure

Based on green plastic toy tractor

Enlarged to life-size

Cast in solid steel, weighs more than 18 tons

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Charles Ray. Father Figure. 2007. Painted steel. 93-3⁄4” × 137” × 71-3⁄4”. © Charles Ray. Courtesy of Matthew Marks Gallery, New York. [Fig. 12-9]

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Methods and Materials (7 of 15)

12.2 Describe modeling, casting, carving, and constructive techniques used to make sculpture.

Casting

Duane Hanson

Cast actual people

Silicone rubber applied to skin

Cut cast away

Painted skin tones, added human hair and clothing

Man with Camera

Jolt of realism

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Duane Hanson. Man with Camera. 1991. Auto body filler polychromed in oil, mixed media, accessories. Life size. Van de Weghe Fine Art, New York. Photo by Tom Powel Imaging, Inc. © Estate of Duane Hanson/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. [Fig. 12-10]

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Methods and Materials (8 of 15)

12.2 Describe modeling, casting, carving, and constructive techniques used to make sculpture.

Casting

Rachel Whiteread, Untitled (Hive I)

Beekeeper’s hive filled with brown-orange resin

Gives absence a new kind of haunting presence

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Rachel Whiteread. Untitled (Hive) I. 2007–8. Resin (two parts). 32-1⁄8” × 20-15⁄16” × 25-3⁄16”. © Rachel Whiteread. Courtesy of the Gagosian Gallery. [Fig. 12-11]

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Methods and Materials (9 of 15)

12.2 Describe modeling, casting, carving, and constructive techniques used to make sculpture.

Carving

Subtractive process of taking away unwanted material

Michelangelo, Awakening Slave

Unfinished piece revealing process

Most challenging method

No error correction possible

Marble preferred material in the West

Can be polished for smooth surface

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Michelangelo Buonarroti. Awakening Slave. 1530–34. Marble. Height 9’. Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence. akg-image/Rabatti-Domingie. [Fig. 12-12]

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Methods and Materials (10 of 15)

12.2 Describe modeling, casting, carving, and constructive techniques used to make sculpture.

Carving

Other materials

Granite

Less vulnerable to modern pollution

Sandstone and limestone

Schist favored by Egyptians

Jade favored by Chinese

Suitable for small, elaborate pieces

Raised bosses on surface of disk (bi)

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Disk (bi). China, Western Han dynasty, c.100–220 CE. Jade (nephrite). Diameter 7”. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington. D.C. Gift of Charles Lang Freer, F1916.155. [Fig. 12-13]

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Methods and Materials (11 of 15)

12.2 Describe modeling, casting, carving, and constructive techniques used to make sculpture.

Carving

Wood

Preference for walnut and cypress

Elizabeth Catlett, Mother and Child

Abstract composition of sweeping curves and essential shapes

Highly polished smooth wood

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Elizabeth Catlett. Mother and Child #2. 1971. Walnut. Height 38”. Photograph by Samella Lewis. © Catlett Mora Family Trust/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. [Fig. 12-14]

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Methods and Materials (12 of 15)

12.2 Describe modeling, casting, carving, and constructive techniques used to make sculpture.

Constructing and assembling

Assembled sculpture

Became popular early in 20th century

Julio González

Pioneered the use of a welding torch in metal sculpture

Assisted Picasso

Maternity

Airy, playful, feminine shape

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Julio González. Maternity. 1934. Steel and stone. Height 49-7⁄8”. © Tate, London 2013 © 2018 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. [Fig. 12-15]

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Methods and Materials (13 of 15)

12.2 Describe modeling, casting, carving, and constructive techniques used to make sculpture.

Constructing and assembling

Phyllida Barlow

Ungainly constructions that fill galleries to point of obstruction

Teetering piece is a visual jolt to viewers

Carefully engineered for safety

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Phyllida Barlow. Untitled:stiltedcrates2015. 2015. Timber, polyurethane foam, polystyrene, cement, steel, plywood, plastic fastening, paint, hardboard, and PVA. Eight parts, each approx. 196-7/8” × 393-3/4” × 472-1/2”. © Phyllida Barlow. Courtesy of the artist and Hauser & Wirth. [Fig. 12-16]

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Methods and Materials (14 of 15)

12.2 Describe modeling, casting, carving, and constructive techniques used to make sculpture.

Constructing and assembling

Marc André Robinson, Throne for the Greatest Rapper of All Time

Lower center of found chairs

From thrift stores or old used furniture

Higher back and wings dignify the intended sitter

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Marc André Robinson. Throne for the Greatest Rapper of All Time. 2005. Wood. 76” × 69” × 48”. Private Collection. [Fig. 12-17]

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Methods and Materials (15 of 15)

12.2 Describe modeling, casting, carving, and constructive techniques used to make sculpture.

Martin Puryear: Constructing Possibilities

“The difference is so great when you go into the third dimension.”

Served in Peace Corps in Sierra Leone

Admired woodworkers for resourcefulness and skill

Hominid

Creation shows obvious craftsmanship

Work designed to suggest shapes

Viewers then complete in their minds

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Martin Puryear. Hominid. 2007–11. Eastern white pine. 73” × 77-1/2” × 57”.

Currently located at Martin Puryear’s studio. Photograph: Christian Erroi. © Martin Puryear. Courtesy of Matthew Marks Gallery. [Fig. 12-18]

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Kinetic Sculpture (1 of 2)

12.3 Define and describe kinetic sculpture.

Sculpture that moves

Pioneer Alexander Calder

Focus on shape, space, and movement

Often called mobiles when parts move in response to small air currents

Jesús Rafael Soto, Escritura Hurtado (Hurtado Writing)

Wire slowly swaying in response

Resembles strokes of handwriting

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Jesús Rafael Soto. Escritura Hurtado (Hurtado Writing). 1975. Paint, wire, nylon cord, and wood. 40″ × 68″ × 18″. Reprinted with permission from the General Secretariat of the OAS AMA. Art Museum of the Americas Collection. © 2013 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/ADAGP, Paris. [Fig. 12-19]

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Kinetic Sculpture (2 of 2)

12.3 Define and describe kinetic sculpture.

Some move under human-made power

Jean Tinguely, Méta-Harmonie II

Used electricity

Viewers activate the work

Creates a cacophony of sound

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Jean Tinguely, Méta-Harmonie II. 1979.

Mobile scrap-iron sculpture with musical instruments and other objects. Three parts; iron, sheet metal, brass, plastic, rubber, wood, leather, glass, electric motor. 149-1/2” × 271-1/2” × 63”.

Emanuel Hoffman Foundation. Gift of Paul Sacher 1980, on permanent loan to the Ӧffentliche Kunstsammlung Basel. Photograph: Bisig & Bayer, Basel. © 2018 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/ADAGP, Paris. [Fig. 12-20]

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Mixed Media (1 of 3)

12.4 Explain the parameters and components of mixed media sculpture.

A variety of media in a single work

Often represents a cultural or symbolic meaning

Cai Guo-Qiang, Inopportune: Stage One

Nine automobiles perforated with light tubes

References both contemporary action movies and car bombings by terrorists

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Cai Guo-Qiang. Inopportune: Stage One. 2004. Nine cars and sequenced multichannel light tubes. Each car: 16’ × 6’. Collection of Seattle Art Museum, Gift of Robert M. Arnold, in honor of the 75th Anniversary of the Seattle Art Museum, 2006. [Fig. 12-21]

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Mixed Media (2 of 3)

12.4 Explain the parameters and components of mixed media sculpture.

Lara Schnitger

Fabric over wooden armatures creating sculpture and hollow interiors

Elements of fashion design

“Dressmaking” a feminist message

Grim Boy

6 feet tall, like a gangly teen

Tense, lurking, and birdlike stare

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Lara Schnitger. Grim Boy. 2005. Wood, fabric, and mixed media. 71” × 59” × 20”. Anton Kern Gallery, New York. [Fig. 12-22]

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Mixed Media (3 of 3)

12.4 Explain the parameters and components of mixed media sculpture.

Nick Cave

Uses extremely wide variety of media

Sculpture

Antique couch, a ceramic dog, metal flowers, light fixture, and more

Strong element of fantasy

Creates sculpture that juxtaposes recognizable things

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Nick Cave. Sculpture. 2013. Mixed media, including ceramic birds, metal flowers, ceramic Doberman, vintage settee, and light fixture. 88” × 72” × 44”.

Photograph by James Prinz Photography. Courtesy of the artist and Jack Shainman Gallery, New York. [Fig. 12-23]

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Installation and Site-Specific Art (1 of 3)

12.5 Discuss artists’ use of installation and site-specific art to transform their surroundings.

Installation

Artist treats an entire space as an artwork and transforms it

Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Airborne

Projected news stories onto walls

Viewers’ shadows blocked the texts

New way for viewers to interact with news of the day

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Rafael Lozano-Hemmer. Airborne. 2013.

Installation. As installed in the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo, Mexico City, 2015. Photograph: Oliver Santana. [Fig. 12-24]

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Installation and Site-Specific Art (2 of 3)

12.5 Discuss artists’ use of installation and site-specific art to transform their surroundings.

Site-specific

Works intended only for particular locations

Best known is Richard Serra’s Tilted Arc

Steel blade 12 feet high

Blocked view, collected graffiti, became a homeless shelter in the middle of a federal office plaza

Artist sued when city wanted to relocate work

Claimed it was meant for that spot

Court ruled that government, as owner of the work, could dispose of it

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Richard Serra. Tilted Arc. 1981. Steel. Height 12’ × 120′. AP Photo/Mario Cabrera. © 2018 Richard Serra/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. [Fig. 12-25]

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Installation and Site-Specific Art (3 of 3)

12.5 Discuss artists’ use of installation and site-specific art to transform their surroundings.

Site-specific

Olafur Eliasson, Waterfall

Gardens of Versailles

Huge cascade appears to emerge out of nowhere

Extreme version of waterfalls and foundations on the grounds

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Olafur Eliasson. Waterfall. 2016.

Crane, water, stainless steel, pump system, hose, ballast. Palace of Versailles.

Photograph: L Anders Sune Berg. Courtesy of the artist; neugerriemschneider, Berlin; Tanya Bonakdar Gallery, New York. © Olafur Eliasson. [Fig. 12-26]

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Copyright

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