Discussion on Applications of Thermodynamics

Research Report: Applications of Thermodynamics
1. Search out (googling or references) for fields of applications of thermodynamics2. Choose one field of applications; all kinds of engines, power plant, air conditining, renewable energy, buring trashes, green house effect, Ozone layer, applications of combustion, environmental fields in association with thermodynamics, etc.3. Research types of engineering jobs in the field of the thermodynamics application and gather informations of the joba) Research the companies for engineering jobs and select two.b) List the names of companies that you researched and describe the technologies of the companies.c) Descriptions of engneering Job openning and Job duty of the positiond) Gather knowledge of the technology and skills necessary for the jobe) List Interview questions and best answers for the questions4. Your reflection on the benefit of this project in finding your intership or jobsLengths; 4-5 page long of wordings and figuresFont size 11, double space

Example 1:
Research Paper
Automotive engines
“The component of the motor vehicle that converts the chemical energy in fuel into mechanical energy for
power. The automotive engine also drives the generator and various accessories, such as the air
conditioning compressor and power steering pump”.
In this assignment I will be analyzing how automotive engines are largely applicable to
thermodynamics and the important job duties engineering are associated in this field. In the
automotive engineering field, there could be some confusion because when it comes to designing
new cars it involves a combination of different engineering disciplines in the fields. Disciplines
which are applied on the design, development and production of the automotive vehicles. In this
case, a mechanical engineering is in charge of designing the engine design, the aerodynamics,
performance and fuel efficiency.
An automotive mechanical engineering is responsible for assessing project requirements
this means they are in charge to provide a clear picture of the work that needs to be done in order
to ensure the success that project will have. This includes agreeing and negotiation budget,
timescales and specifications for the project. The automotive mechanical engineering is also
responsible for the developing and implementing test procedures by creating test data based on
the type of engine they are going to analyze. They are also responsible to build engines
prototypes to carry out test on before they are put out in the market. They perform a numerous
test runs using computer modelling software’s for any type of mechanical failures they might
encounter before its produce. They are the ones who are in charge to select the type of material
that will be needed because with these 4-stroke engines high-pressure air and burning fuel to
generate power are component that experience high temperatures. To add on, the automotive
mechanical engineering is also responsible for the performance and fuel efficiency of the engine.
this what I mean is that they are basically in charge to oversee the process of the fuel economy
and consumption impact the engine will make by also to take in consideration how it will impact
our environment. As you know there has been some improvements that these engineering have
made over the past years to improve the damages that were cause to the environments for when
the first automotive vehicle engines were made. Now we have electric and hybrid motors that are
some of the two engine alternatives the automotive vehicles industry has.
To be honest, I haven’t really looked at any local companies in the area
because I believe that I will be moving back to the bay area. I am not very familiar with a lot of
autonomous local companies in the bay area besides Tesla and Ford. However, I don’t think I
will be able to land a job with any of the two of these well at least for a while.
After doing this assignment, I was able to see that there is more job opportunities and a
lot of more companies but in a different field application. I was also able to learn how much an
automotive engineering makes on a yearly basis salary 78K-80k. which I thought was very
interesting. I do believe that this was a good exercise that professor provided to us to allows
to gain knowledge about what kind of daily duties we will encounter when we land a job after we
Example 2:
Job Duties of a Research and Development Engineer at a Heating and Exhaust Ventilation
This report provides a description of the job duties of an engineer in the field of thermodynamics.
More specifically, the job duties of a Research and Development Engineer for a Heating and Exhaust
company are outlined. The company name is Duravent, and information of the job duties was obtained
through previous work experience at the company as well as coworker input. After describing the typical
duties of a Research and Development Engineer at Duravent, the benefit of this report in finding future
jobs will be reflected upon.
In the summer of 2019, I had the opportunity to work for a heating and exhaust manufacturing
company, Duravent, as a Mechanical Engineering Intern. Duravent is a leading producer of heating and
exhaust vents used in residential and commercial buildings. Their vents are used in appliances like
fireplaces, chimneys, and stoves, as well as industrial heating and ventilation units. Duravent produces all
of their products in an 80,000 square foot manufacturing facility located in,. Their
engineering department is also located on site.
Duravent’s engineering department consists of Manufacturing, Product Design, and Research and
Development groups, all of which work together to make sure Duravent delivers the highest quality of
product to their customers. And since they are working with the transfer of heat through vents, every
engineer has to be familiar with the fundamentals of thermodynamics. This especially applies to the
Research and Development group, as they are in charge of the innovation, testing, and validation of new
and existing products. They have to understand the nature of how heat is transferred so that they can help
the Product Design group design products that are safe and meet customer needs.
As a Mechanical Engineering Intern, I was working with the Research and Development group on
a particularly unique project modifying existing machine components on a vent-making machine to
improve product quality. Although this project itself did not require detailed thermodynamic analysis,
working closely with the Research and Development group gave me great insight into the thermodynamic
analysis that is used in their daily jobs. I was exposed to the research, simulation, and testing that took
place in the Research and Development lab. Additionally, I learned a lot about the job from spending time
with my coworkers outside of work and learning about what they do. The following paragraphs are a
description of the duties of a Research and Development Engineer at Duravent.
Job Duties:
One of the biggest responsibilities of a Research and Development Engineer at Duravent is the
testing and verification of products. When dealing with high temperature exhaust, a faulty or
underperforming product can result in property or life damage. For this reason, there are strict rules and
requirements that must be met in order to certify a vent for commercial sale. Not meeting these
requirements is a huge liability for a company like Duravent that makes thousands of vents a day. One
faulty manufacturing set up, for example, can cause hundreds of thousands of dollars in losses.
For this reason, every Duravent product is thoroughly tested and certified before going into mass
production. The certification process involves different kinds of thermodynamic testing and experiments.
The type of test depends on the product, but some of the most common ones are a heat test, a water vapor
test, a structural integrity test, and an air flow test. The heat test, for example, raises the temperature in a
vent incrementally and observes the material deformation and behavior to see if it is within the
certification guidelines. If not, the product can not go into commercial production.
Another essential duty of a Research and Development Engineer at Duravent is the research,
analysis, and simulation of new product ideas. Since product development efforts are extremely time,
labor, and capital intensive, it is only viable to undertake the development of a new product if there is a
degree of certainty that it will be worth it. It is the Research and Development Engineers responsibility to
provide the relevant research, analysis, and simulations to help executives make crucial decisions
regarding which products are worth pursuing and which ones are not. This is a huge responsibility that
can either make the company lots of money, or cause a major loss if done incorrectly.
One example of research being done at Duravent is research into the flexibility of different vent
cross-sections. The flexibility of a vent affects how easy or difficult it is for the end user to manipulate
and install the vent. Flexibility also affects the required packaging size, since a more flexible vent can be
compressed to a smaller size and shipped more efficiently and cost effectively. As part of the research,
engineers have simulated and tested the response of different cross sections subjected to pull testing. A
breakthrough in this research can potentially improve the company’s product, reduce costs, and increase
The duties of a Research and Development Engineer at Duravent are integral to the success of the
company. This job requires a fundamental understanding of thermodynamics since the product deals
directly with heat and exhaust gases. For this reason, the job is a perfect example of a job in the field of
thermodynamics. Understanding the job duties of a Research and Development Engineer at Duravent can
help foster an understanding of the value such an engineer provides. Aspiring engineers have a better
chance of getting this kind of job if they learn the theory and skills required to be able to provide the same
value to the marketplace.
Research exercises like this report can be very helpful in job search for students because it
requires the student to understand the job as well as the company in which the job is offered. Personally, I
think that this research approach has the potential to improve the odds of getting any job that is applied to.
Especially in the interview phase, being able to resonate with the company needs and the job
is a huge advantage. Employers will see such a candidate as prepared and proactive.
Example 3:
One modern application of thermodynamics that we might take for granted are cooling systems,
the air conditioners we use and are surrounded by in our day to day lives. Being able to change and
regulate the temperature of an enclosed space has become commonplace, and has changed the way we
live, ranging window mounted air conditioners to cool a room on a hot summer’s day to massive
freezers for storing perishable foods.
The engineers that deal with air conditioning the most are HVAC engineers, engineers that
specialize in designing heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and cooling systems. [1] This can also
include the installation and maintenance of these types of systems. As such, the job could vary from
working at a desk and modeling buildings to minimize energy consumption for heating and cooling, to
going out to various locations to fix, maintain, or install devices. [1] They use many of cycles discussed in
this course, as heating and refrigeration cycles are often used.
A HVAC engineer might be tasked with designing a single air conditioning unit for a room, having
to maintain some temperature and humidity in that room throughout the year under various weather
conditions, or even have to design an entire air conditioning system for a whole building, maintaining
different temperatures and humidity throughout a building. [2] These engineers have to deal with heat
dissipation from room to room, to the environment, and with heat generated by different amounts of
people in a building at different times of the day. In the end, these engineers work to tackle large and
complex thermal systems to achieve a thermal equilibrium, and to help minimize the energy cost to
maintain that thermal equilibrium, in more ways than just designing air conditioning units. They might
suggest changes to how energy is spent throughout a day, such as keeping lights off in a room that is not
being used, or address some potential heat losses in a building, such as a wall needing better insulation
to reduce heat loss.
In addition to designing these systems in an office space, HVAC engineers may visit job sites to
maintain and repair these systems, and addressing any heating or cooling issues that might arise in a
building. The job could be as little as inspecting an air conditioning unit for wear and tear, and
determining if it needs to be replaced or nor yet, to repairing or replacing existing air conditioning units
and systems. Also these Engineers also provide price estimations for installations of these systems or
changes to existing systems, and what some types of changes might be, as previously mentioned. [1]
Air conditioning systems are not just used for residential building and offices, often they need to
be used for storage, to keep metal from corroding by keeping humidity low, keeping a room full of
computers operating at a low temperature, and other conditions that might need to be kept to prevent
harm from coming to the objects being stored. Additionally Air Conditioning is common in vehicles of all
types, including cars and airplanes. [2] Air Conditioners are in demand wherever you go, and the
Engineers who deal with them, HVAC engineers, are in demand, with a median salary of $47,610 and an
expected 13% growth. [3]
Other engineers that deal with Air conditioning are far and few, and often end up consulting an
HVAC engineer to determine what Air Conditioning System would be required for their project. Because
of this, an HVAC engineer might receive employment alongside other types of engineers, such as in a
power plant, where parts of a power cycle might need cooling, or the environment needs to be kept at a
certain temperature, working with Mechanical and Electrical Engineers. Some engineers work
exclusively for a power plant, and as such might gain familiarity with Air Conditioning units if those
are heavily involved with the process they use to generate electricity. Additionally, power plant
engineers, and particularly, Nuclear Engineers need to be with the ventilation part of HVAC as power
plants tend to operate at very high temperatures, and generate a large amount of heat.
I had already started gaining an interest in becoming an HVAC engineer since my last semester,
where one of my teachers discussed the subject when we brought up Gas Power and Refrigeration
Cycles as a topic. With a job like this, I could gain employment virtually anywhere where air conditioning
or heating units are used, which is to say everywhere. This assignment help me to sit down a little bit
and focus on researching this field before the summer break, and cementing my interest in the field.
Also I have talked with a teacher who worked in the field for information on what HVAC Engineers do,
I have some prior knowledge that I am using for this project.

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In the absence of any work interactions and any changes in kinetic or potential energies, the
chemical energy released during a combustion process either is lost as heat to the surroundings
or is used internally to raise the temperature of the combustion products. The smaller the heat
loss, the larger the temperature rise. In the limiting case of no heat loss to the surroundings (Q =
0), the temperature of the products reaches a maximum, which is called the adiabatic
flameor adiabatic combustion temperature of the reaction (Fig. 15-24).
FIGURE 15-24
The temperature of a combustion chamber becomes maximum when combustion is complete and
no heat is lost to the surroundings (Q = 0).
The adiabatic flame temperature of a steady-flow combustion process is determined from Eq. 15-
11 by setting Q = 0 and W = 0. It yields
Once the reactants and their states are specified, the enthalpy of the reactants Hreact can be easily
determined. The calculation of the enthalpy of the products Hprod is not so straightforward,
however, because the temperature of the products is not known prior to the calculations.
Therefore, the determination of the adiabatic flame temperature requires the use of an iterative
technique unless equations for the sensible enthalpy changes of the combustion products are
available. A temperature is assumed for the product gases, and the Hprod is determined for this
temperature. If it is not equal to Hreact, calculations are repeated with another temperature. The
adiabatic flame temperature is then determined from these two results by interpolation. When the
oxidant is air, the product gases mostly consist of N2, and a good first guess for the adiabatic
flame temperature is obtained by treating the entire product gases as N2.
In combustion chambers, the highest temperature to which a material can be exposed is limited
by metallurgical considerations. Therefore, the adiabatic flame temperature is an important
consideration in the design of combustion chambers, gas turbines, and nozzles. The maximum
temperatures that occur in these devices are considerably lower than the adiabatic flame
temperature, however, since the combustion is usually incomplete, some heat loss takes place,
and some combustion gases dissociate at high temperatures (Fig. 15-25). The maximum
temperature in a combustion chamber can be controlled by adjusting the amount of excess air,
which serves as a coolant.
FIGURE 15-25
The maximum temperature encountered in a combustion chamber is lower than the theoretical
adiabatic flame temperature.
Note that the adiabatic flame temperature of a fuel is not unique. Its value depends on (1) the
state of the reactants, (2) the degree of completion of the reaction, and (3) the amount of air used.
For a specified fuel at a specified state burned with air at a specified state, the adiabatic flame
temperature attains its maximum value when complete combustion occurs with the theoretical
amount of air.
Page 781
FIGURE 15-26
Schematic for Example 15-8.
SOLUTIONLiquid octane is burned steadily. The adiabatic flame temperature is to be
determined for different cases.
Assumptions1 This is a steady-flow combustion process. 2 The combustion chamber is
adiabatic. 3 There are no work interactions. 4 Air and the combustion gases are ideal
gases. 5 Changes in kinetic and potential energies are negligible.
Analysis(a) The balanced equation for the combustion process with the theoretical amount of air
The adiabatic flame temperature relation Hprod = Hreact in this case reduces to
since all the reactants are at the standard reference state and = 0 for O2 and N2. The
and h values of various components at 298 K are
C8H18( ) −249,950 —
O2 0 8682
N2 0 8669
H2O(g) −241,820 9904
CO2 −393,520 9364
Substituting, we have
which yields
It appears that we have one equation with three unknowns. Actually we have only one
unknown—the temperature of the products Tprod–since h = h(T) for ideal gases. Therefore, we
have to use an equation solver such as EES or a trial-and-error approach to determine the
temperature of the products.
Page 782
A first guess is obtained by dividing the right-hand side of the equation by the total number of
moles, which yields 5,646,081/(8 + 9 + 47) = 88,220 kJ/kmol. This enthalpy value corresponds
to about 2650 K for N2, 2100 K for H2O, and 1800 K for CO2. Noting that the majority of the
moles are N2, we see that Tprod should be close to 2650 K, but somewhat under it. Therefore, a
good first guess is 2400 K. At this temperature,
This value is higher than 5,646,081 kJ. Therefore, the actual temperature is slightly under 2400
K. Next we choose 2350 K. It yields
which is lower than 5,646,081 kJ. Therefore, the actual temperature of the products is between
2350 and 2400 K. By interpolation, it is found to be Tprod = 2395 K.
(b) The balanced equation for the complete combustion process with 400 percent theoretical air
By following the procedure used in (a), the adiabatic flame temperature in this case is
determined to be Tprod = 962 K.
Notice that the temperature of the products decreases significantly as a result of using excess air.
(c) The balanced equation for the incomplete combustion process with 90 percent theoretical air
Following the procedure used in (a), we find the adiabatic flame temperature in this case to
be Tprod = 2236 K.
DiscussionNotice that the adiabatic flame temperature decreases as a result of incomplete
combustion or using excess air. Also, the maximum adiabatic flame temperature is achieved
when complete combustion occurs with the theoretical amount of air.
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