would like this to be a more formal writing exercise.

Turn in project 2 as a report. The report has 2 parts. The first part is an updated resume worth 20 points. The second part is a semester project report worth 130 points.This semester project report is a chance to reflect on your semester’s progress. This is where you can talk about what went well, and discuss what could have gone better. I would like this to be a more formal writing exercise. I have some guidelines that will help you structure your writing. This report represents the lines you have added to your resume on your own. Please provide a project nal report that includes:https://www.nature.com/nature-research/for-authors/write (Links to an external site.)http://www.markowetzlab.org/skills/How-to-write-a-Nature-abstract.pdf (Links to an external site.)http://phdcomics.com/comics/archive_print.php?comicid=1899 (Links to an external site.)

10/22/2020 1

Design of

Lab Experiment

Construction Materials: CE 3116

Principles of Experimental Design

Recognition & statement of the problem

Choice of factors, levels, and range

Selection of the response variable(s)

Choice of experimental design

Perform the experiment

Statistical analysis of the data

Conclusions & recommendations

(from “Design & Analysis of Experiments,” Douglas Montgomery) 10/22/2020 2

Tasks

Determine factor levels

Design concrete mixes

Determine number of replicate tests for slump,

air content, and 28-day compressive strength

Choose time intervals for strength testing

Choose types of plots for presentation of results

Discuss expected effects of factor(s) on

response variables

Factor Levels

Control = No admixture

Low admixture or SCM dosage

High admixture or SCM dosage

Hint: Uniformly space the factor levels as much

as possible

Control Low High 10/22/2020 3

Replicate Tests

The number of replicate tests shall be large enough to

make statistically sound judgments about effects of the

factor levels…in other words, are the “differences” in

the response data really statistically different?

The “difference” trying to be detected can be

analogized to a radio station signal…one wants a strong

signal.

The variability in the data can be analogized to the

noise or hissing coming from the speakers in the radio

when trying to tune in a station.

A large signal-to-noise ratio is preferred.

Replicate Tests

Replication allows for an estimation of the experimental

error (i.e. experimental “noise”).

See handout (ExptSize.pdf) for additional explanation

of statistical parameters.

The website below can be used for calculating the

number of replicates (i.e. sample size).

https://www.dssresearch.com/resources/calculators/stati

stical-power-calculator-average/ 10/22/2020 4

Number of Replicate Tests;

An Example Determination

After the website loads, select, “Two” for the Number of

Samples

Next, be sure and select a “Two-tail” Type of Test; i.e. we

are only interested in whether the means are statistically

“different.”

Enter the control mix response (e.g. 28-day strength) mean

value in the box labeled Average Value for Sample 1

Enter an estimated mean value for the low admixture

dosage mix response in the box labeled Average Value for

Sample 2

Enter any whole number of replicate tests in the boxes

labeled Size of Sample 1 and Size of Sample 2 (let the size

of Sample 1 and 2 be the same)

Number of Replicate Tests:

Example Determination (cont.)

Enter the appropriate standard deviation in the box

labeled Standard Deviation for Sample 1. Enter the same

value in the box labeled Standard Deviation for Sample 2

(we are assuming equal variance in the two groups).

Choose 5% in the box labeled Alpha Error Level; this is

the typical value used for most comparison of means

tests. The lower the value, the more confidence one has in

the results (5%Æ 95% Confidence Level)

Click on the tab labeled “Calculate Statistical Power.” The

higher the power, the more confidence one has in the

results. Many references recommend 80% as a typical

power value with 50% as a minimum. 10/22/2020 5

Number of Replicate Tests:

Example Determination (cont.)

The required number of replicate specimens (i.e.

Sample Size) goes up as the Alpha Error Level

(i.e. significance level) goes down and/or the

desired power of the test goes up

If the calculated power is too small (judgment

call), increase the number of replicate specimens.

Or one could hold the number of replicates constant

and increase the difference between the means.

However, one may conclude that this scenario is not

relevant to the task at hand.

Number of Replicate Tests:

Example Determination (cont.)

It is important to realize that as the number of replicate

tests goes up, cost also goes up

Choose an appropriate number of replicates for the

program to be implemented

One may not be able to measure small differences in

means without paying large costs

Remember, for this exercise, the estimated mean of the

low admixture / SCM dosage mix response is used for

replicate determination because the low dose is

assumed to cause a smaller difference in the

responses; i.e. the worst-case scenario. Note: For this

exercise, one may assume the number of replicate tests

will be the same for the high level admixture dosage

mix (although the number would probably be lower). 10/22/2020 6

Concrete Mix Designs

Three mix designs; control, low dosage, and

high dosage. See the handout for specifics.

Follow absolute volume method (per example in

Lab #2A Handout), but do not adjust for field

moisture conditions…you are only interested in

the oven-dry design weights per cubic yard.

Do not attempt to design admixture / SCM

mixes for anticipated changes in slump or air

content.

Concrete Mix Designs

Admixture / SCM dosage rates are your choice,

but base them on recommendations in

appropriate publications (e.g. PCA Design and

Control of Concrete Mixtures, Master-Builders

Chart, ACI Education Bulletin E4-12: Chemical

Admixtures for Concrete, etc.).

The following slides have information that will

be useful in the mix design process 10/22/2020 7

Additional Deliverables

Determine time intervals for compressive strength

testing. Age of the strength specimens is actually

another experimental factor. This will affect the

number of cylinders to be cast for strength testing.

Discuss in a qualitative manner (and quantitative, if

possible) the expected effects of the differing admixture

levels on the responses.

Use plots to supplement the discussion of results.

Be sure and report the estimated mean of the low

admixture dosage mix response along with the number

of replicate tests needed. Note: This requirement can be

met by including screen shots of the webpage in your

report.

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Discussion on Design of Lab Experiment

Just from $10/Page

Design of Experiment (10-12-20)

CE 3116: DESIGN OF LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS Each student will design a lab experiment to study the effect of various admixtures (the experimental factors or independent variables) on the slump, air content, and 28-day compressive strength (the experimental responses or dependent variables) of a control concrete mix at one water-cement (w/c) ratio. Each group is assigned a specific admixture or supplementary cementitious material:

Table 1: Assignments

Group Admixture 1A, 5C, 9B, 13D Air entrainment 2A, 6C, 10B, 14D Accelerator 3A, 7C, 11B Class C Fly ash (partial cement replacement) 4A, 8C, 12B Silica Fume (addition to cement)

GIVEN:

Control Mix Design Parameters:

x The control mix is to be non-air-entrained with the design slump = 4″, and the NMS of coarse aggregate = ¾″.

x The DRUW of coarse aggregate, fineness modulus of sand, and specific gravities to be used are those given in the Labs 1 and 2A Mix Design Data and calculation. Use a specific gravity of 2.9 for the class C fly ash and 2.4 for the silica fume.

x Total moisture content, absorption, and surface moisture values listed on the Lab 2A Mix Design Handout will *not *be needed for this exercise as *you are to calculate*

*design proportions, *not batch proportions.

x Use your squad’s w/c.

Statistics:

*Slump and Air Content:*

x MEANS (or averages): Use the “mean” (design) values for control mix slump and air content. The control mix design slump = 4″, as given above. The assumed approximate air content for the control mix comes from Table 9-5 in the Lab 2A Handout example mix design problem.

x STANDARD DEVIATIONS: Use standard deviations (S) that are calculated based on the results of the Outlier Analysis in the Lab 2A Common Datasheet for slump for your w/c, but excluding mixtures with admixtures, and *air content across all mixtures*

*without an AEA*.

*28-Day Compressive Strength:*

x 28-day compressive strength (fc) means and standard deviations per w/c are based on the results of the Outlier Analysis for the Lab 2B Cylinder Test data. Only use the data for the mixtures without admixtures. Use mean and standard deviation for the mixture with the w/c corresponding to your squad’s mixture.

Design of Experiment (10-12-20) Table 2 in this document shall be filled out and included in the final report. REMEMBER TO USE ONLY THE REMAINING NON-OUTLIER DATA IN LAB 2A AND LAB 2B.

FIND:

x Choose 3 levels of treatment (control = zero admixture / SCM, and 2 admixture / SCM dosages).

x Calculate design (not batch) proportions of control and both modified mixtures (oven dry basis). Show calculations for all three mixtures!

x Choose wisely at least one additional interval of time (an additional experimental factor) for strength testing. This will affect the total number of compressive strength specimens to be cast, which shall be reported. Remember, a compressive strength “test” result is based on testing two or more specimens or cylinders.

x Determine number of replicate tests for slump, air content, and 28-day compressive strength testing (and, therefore, the necessary number of cylinders to be cast for 28- day testing; also to be reported) based on statistical concepts.

https://www.dssresearch.com/resources/calculators/statistical-power-calculatoraverage/ NOTE: It is only necessary to examine an estimated difference in test results between the control and low admixture / SCM dosage levels. Although the number of replicate tests for the high dosage level analysis would probably be less than that for the low dosage analysis because of the probable bigger differences between the control mix and high dosage mix responses, let us state that the same number of replicate tests determined in the low dosage analysis will be used for the high dosage level portion of the experiment. Include screen shots of the power calculator webpage for each replicate test determination.

x Discuss expected effects (qualitative at a minimum) of the differing admixture / SCM levels on slump, air content, and compressive strength (at selected intervals of time) in the context of your specific admixture assignment. Search the literature! NOTE: It is possible that some admixtures / SCMs may not have a significant effect on one or more of the experimental responses. For example, let’s say 1) you determine based on the literature search that your admixture / SCM may not or will not affect the air content of the fresh concrete, or 2) you cannot find information on your admixture’s effect on air content. Under either circumstance, report the result of your search. However, you still need to perform air content tests in your experiment (as well as slump and compressive strength). Therefore, determine the number of replicate air content tests to be performed using one standard deviation (1S) as the difference to be measured; i.e. the difference between the mean air content of the control mix and the estimated mean air content of the low dose admixture / SCM mix. Apply this same “1S” rule to any other admixture / SCM – response combination that may follow this example scenario. Assume: 1. Each concrete mixture can be mixed in one batch (i.e. no batch-to-batch variation) 2. Calculated standard deviations are the same for non-control (i.e. admixture / SCM) mixtures.

Design of Experiment (10-12-20)

x Use plots to supplement discussion of results (e.g. strength vs. time, strength vs. admixture level, slump vs. admixture level, etc.).

x Report any assumptions (given or added).

x List references. Additional references (assumed to be posted on Canvas): PCA Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures, ACI Education Bulletin E4-12: Chemical Admixtures for Concrete, ExptSize.pdf file, and lecture presentation.

Table 2: Statistics

Squad w/c fc (psi) Slump (in) Air Content (%) 3A 0.45 4A 0.45 11B 0.45 12B 0.45 Mean * S * * 7C 0.45 + SP 8C 0.45 + SP 5C 0.55 6C 0.55 13D 0.55 14D 0.55 Mean * S * * * *These values are needed for determining the required number of replicate tests (or “sample size” on the power calculator website)

Design of Experiment (10-12-20)

Checklist & Point Distribution. ONLY INDIVIDUAL REPORTS! Total Possible Points = 80

x Title Page [1 point]

x Executive Summary [9 points: must include, at a minimum, a short description of the task, the number of replicate tests to be performed per response, and expected effects of assigned admixture on responses]

x Introduction [3 point: a more detailed description of the task]

x Proposed Work Plan/Lab Investigation

o Determine 2 reasonable admixture or SCM dosage levels [6 points]

o Concrete mix design calculations [16 points total; for any liquid admixture mix design, much heavier weight is given to the control mix calculations since liquid admixture doses are easy to calculate once the control mix design proportions are determined]

o Table 2 filled out and calculations performed correctly [14 points]

o Additional interval of time for compressive strength testing chosen [1 point]

o Screen shots of power calculator webpage for each of the 3 replicate test determinations [9 points]

x Discuss expected effects (qualitative at a minimum) of the differing admixture levels on slump, air content, and compressive strength [9 points total]

x Plots to supplement discussion [9 points total: discretion will be used by the grader to allocate the points; i.e. if an admixture does not seem to affect a particular response, there is no reason to generate a plot for this circumstance but this scenario should be reported]

x Assumptions reported [2 points]

x References listed [1 point]

Design of Experiment (10-12-20)

CE 3116: DESIGN OF LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS Each student will design a lab experiment to study the effect of various admixtures (the experimental factors or independent variables) on the slump, air content, and 28-day compressive strength (the experimental responses or dependent variables) of a control concrete mix at one water-cement (w/c) ratio. Each group is assigned a specific admixture or supplementary cementitious material:

Table 1: Assignments

Group Admixture 1A, 5C, 9B, 13D Air entrainment 2A, 6C, 10B, 14D Accelerator 3A, 7C, 11B Class C Fly ash (partial cement replacement) 4A, 8C, 12B Silica Fume (addition to cement)

GIVEN:

Control Mix Design Parameters:

x The control mix is to be non-air-entrained with the design slump = 4″, and the NMS of coarse aggregate = ¾″.

x The DRUW of coarse aggregate, fineness modulus of sand, and specific gravities to be used are those given in the Labs 1 and 2A Mix Design Data and calculation. Use a specific gravity of 2.9 for the class C fly ash and 2.4 for the silica fume.

x Total moisture content, absorption, and surface moisture values listed on the Lab 2A Mix Design Handout will *not *be needed for this exercise as *you are to calculate*

*design proportions, *not batch proportions.

x Use your squad’s w/c.

Statistics:

*Slump and Air Content:*

x MEANS (or averages): Use the “mean” (design) values for control mix slump and air content. The control mix design slump = 4″, as given above. The assumed approximate air content for the control mix comes from Table 9-5 in the Lab 2A Handout example mix design problem.

x STANDARD DEVIATIONS: Use standard deviations (S) that are calculated based on the results of the Outlier Analysis in the Lab 2A Common Datasheet for slump for your w/c, but excluding mixtures with admixtures, and *air content across all mixtures*

*without an AEA*.

*28-Day Compressive Strength:*

x 28-day compressive strength (fc) means and standard deviations per w/c are based on the results of the Outlier Analysis for the Lab 2B Cylinder Test data. Only use the data for the mixtures without admixtures. Use mean and standard deviation for the mixture with the w/c corresponding to your squad’s mixture.

Design of Experiment (10-12-20) Table 2 in this document shall be filled out and included in the final report. REMEMBER TO USE ONLY THE REMAINING NON-OUTLIER DATA IN LAB 2A AND LAB 2B.

FIND:

x Choose 3 levels of treatment (control = zero admixture / SCM, and 2 admixture / SCM dosages).

x Calculate design (not batch) proportions of control and both modified mixtures (oven dry basis). Show calculations for all three mixtures!

x Choose wisely at least one additional interval of time (an additional experimental factor) for strength testing. This will affect the total number of compressive strength specimens to be cast, which shall be reported. Remember, a compressive strength “test” result is based on testing two or more specimens or cylinders.

x Determine number of replicate tests for slump, air content, and 28-day compressive strength testing (and, therefore, the necessary number of cylinders to be cast for 28- day testing; also to be reported) based on statistical concepts.

https://www.dssresearch.com/resources/calculators/statistical-power-calculatoraverage/ NOTE: It is only necessary to examine an estimated difference in test results between the control and low admixture / SCM dosage levels. Although the number of replicate tests for the high dosage level analysis would probably be less than that for the low dosage analysis because of the probable bigger differences between the control mix and high dosage mix responses, let us state that the same number of replicate tests determined in the low dosage analysis will be used for the high dosage level portion of the experiment. Include screen shots of the power calculator webpage for each replicate test determination.

x Discuss expected effects (qualitative at a minimum) of the differing admixture / SCM levels on slump, air content, and compressive strength (at selected intervals of time) in the context of your specific admixture assignment. Search the literature! NOTE: It is possible that some admixtures / SCMs may not have a significant effect on one or more of the experimental responses. For example, let’s say 1) you determine based on the literature search that your admixture / SCM may not or will not affect the air content of the fresh concrete, or 2) you cannot find information on your admixture’s effect on air content. Under either circumstance, report the result of your search. However, you still need to perform air content tests in your experiment (as well as slump and compressive strength). Therefore, determine the number of replicate air content tests to be performed using one standard deviation (1S) as the difference to be measured; i.e. the difference between the mean air content of the control mix and the estimated mean air content of the low dose admixture / SCM mix. Apply this same “1S” rule to any other admixture / SCM – response combination that may follow this example scenario. Assume: 1. Each concrete mixture can be mixed in one batch (i.e. no batch-to-batch variation) 2. Calculated standard deviations are the same for non-control (i.e. admixture / SCM) mixtures.

Design of Experiment (10-12-20)

x Use plots to supplement discussion of results (e.g. strength vs. time, strength vs. admixture level, slump vs. admixture level, etc.).

x Report any assumptions (given or added).

x List references. Additional references (assumed to be posted on Canvas): PCA Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures, ACI Education Bulletin E4-12: Chemical Admixtures for Concrete, ExptSize.pdf file, and lecture presentation.

Table 2: Statistics

Squad w/c fc (psi) Slump (in) Air Content (%) 3A 0.45 4A 0.45 11B 0.45 12B 0.45 Mean * S * * 7C 0.45 + SP 8C 0.45 + SP 5C 0.55 6C 0.55 13D 0.55 14D 0.55 Mean * S * * * *These values are needed for determining the required number of replicate tests (or “sample size” on the power calculator website)

Design of Experiment (10-12-20)

Checklist & Point Distribution. ONLY INDIVIDUAL REPORTS! Total Possible Points = 80

x Title Page [1 point]

x Executive Summary [9 points: must include, at a minimum, a short description of the task, the number of replicate tests to be performed per response, and expected effects of assigned admixture on responses]

x Introduction [3 point: a more detailed description of the task]

x Proposed Work Plan/Lab Investigation

o Determine 2 reasonable admixture or SCM dosage levels [6 points]

o Concrete mix design calculations [16 points total; for any liquid admixture mix design, much heavier weight is given to the control mix calculations since liquid admixture doses are easy to calculate once the control mix design proportions are determined]

o Table 2 filled out and calculations performed correctly [14 points]

o Additional interval of time for compressive strength testing chosen [1 point]

o Screen shots of power calculator webpage for each of the 3 replicate test determinations [9 points]

x Discuss expected effects (qualitative at a minimum) of the differing admixture levels on slump, air content, and compressive strength [9 points total]

x Plots to supplement discussion [9 points total: discretion will be used by the grader to allocate the points; i.e. if an admixture does not seem to affect a particular response, there is no reason to generate a plot for this circumstance but this scenario should be reported]

x Assumptions reported [2 points]

x References listed [1 point]

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