Discussion on Design of Lab Experiment

would like this to be a more formal writing exercise.
Turn in project 2 as a report. The report has 2 parts. The first part is an updated resume worth 20 points. The second part is a semester project report worth 130 points.This semester project report is a chance to reflect on your semester’s progress. This is where you can talk about what went well, and discuss what could have gone better. I would like this to be a more formal writing exercise. I have some guidelines that will help you structure your writing. This report represents the lines you have added to your resume on your own. Please provide a project nal report that includes:https://www.nature.com/nature-research/for-authors/write (Links to an external site.)http://www.markowetzlab.org/skills/How-to-write-a-Nature-abstract.pdf (Links to an external site.)http://phdcomics.com/comics/archive_print.php?comicid=1899 (Links to an external site.)

10/22/2020 1
Design of
Lab Experiment
Construction Materials: CE 3116
Principles of Experimental Design
„ Recognition & statement of the problem
„ Choice of factors, levels, and range
„ Selection of the response variable(s)
„ Choice of experimental design
„ Perform the experiment
„ Statistical analysis of the data
„ Conclusions & recommendations
(from “Design & Analysis of Experiments,” Douglas Montgomery) 10/22/2020 2
Tasks
„ Determine factor levels
„ Design concrete mixes
„ Determine number of replicate tests for slump,
air content, and 28-day compressive strength
„ Choose time intervals for strength testing
„ Choose types of plots for presentation of results
„ Discuss expected effects of factor(s) on
response variables
Factor Levels
„ Control = No admixture
„ Low admixture or SCM dosage
„ High admixture or SCM dosage
„ Hint: Uniformly space the factor levels as much
as possible
Control Low High 10/22/2020 3
Replicate Tests
„ The number of replicate tests shall be large enough to
make statistically sound judgments about effects of the
factor levels…in other words, are the “differences” in
the response data really statistically different?
„ The “difference” trying to be detected can be
analogized to a radio station signal…one wants a strong
signal.
„ The variability in the data can be analogized to the
noise or hissing coming from the speakers in the radio
when trying to tune in a station.
„ A large signal-to-noise ratio is preferred.
Replicate Tests
„ Replication allows for an estimation of the experimental
error (i.e. experimental “noise”).
„ See handout (ExptSize.pdf) for additional explanation
of statistical parameters.
„ The website below can be used for calculating the
number of replicates (i.e. sample size).
https://www.dssresearch.com/resources/calculators/stati
stical-power-calculator-average/ 10/22/2020 4
Number of Replicate Tests;
An Example Determination
„ After the website loads, select, “Two” for the Number of
Samples
„ Next, be sure and select a “Two-tail” Type of Test; i.e. we
are only interested in whether the means are statistically
“different.”
„ Enter the control mix response (e.g. 28-day strength) mean
value in the box labeled Average Value for Sample 1
„ Enter an estimated mean value for the low admixture
dosage mix response in the box labeled Average Value for
Sample 2
„ Enter any whole number of replicate tests in the boxes
labeled Size of Sample 1 and Size of Sample 2 (let the size
of Sample 1 and 2 be the same)
Number of Replicate Tests:
Example Determination (cont.)
„ Enter the appropriate standard deviation in the box
labeled Standard Deviation for Sample 1. Enter the same
value in the box labeled Standard Deviation for Sample 2
(we are assuming equal variance in the two groups).
„ Choose 5% in the box labeled Alpha Error Level; this is
the typical value used for most comparison of means
tests. The lower the value, the more confidence one has in
the results (5%Æ 95% Confidence Level)
„ Click on the tab labeled “Calculate Statistical Power.” The
higher the power, the more confidence one has in the
results. Many references recommend 80% as a typical
power value with 50% as a minimum. 10/22/2020 5
Number of Replicate Tests:
Example Determination (cont.)
„ The required number of replicate specimens (i.e.
Sample Size) goes up as the Alpha Error Level
(i.e. significance level) goes down and/or the
desired power of the test goes up
„ If the calculated power is too small (judgment
call), increase the number of replicate specimens.
„ Or one could hold the number of replicates constant
and increase the difference between the means.
However, one may conclude that this scenario is not
relevant to the task at hand.
Number of Replicate Tests:
Example Determination (cont.)
„ It is important to realize that as the number of replicate
tests goes up, cost also goes up
„ Choose an appropriate number of replicates for the
program to be implemented
„ One may not be able to measure small differences in
means without paying large costs
„ Remember, for this exercise, the estimated mean of the
low admixture / SCM dosage mix response is used for
replicate determination because the low dose is
assumed to cause a smaller difference in the
responses; i.e. the worst-case scenario. Note: For this
exercise, one may assume the number of replicate tests
will be the same for the high level admixture dosage
mix (although the number would probably be lower). 10/22/2020 6
Concrete Mix Designs
„ Three mix designs; control, low dosage, and
high dosage. See the handout for specifics.
„ Follow absolute volume method (per example in
Lab #2A Handout), but do not adjust for field
moisture conditions…you are only interested in
the oven-dry design weights per cubic yard.
„ Do not attempt to design admixture / SCM
mixes for anticipated changes in slump or air
content.
Concrete Mix Designs
„ Admixture / SCM dosage rates are your choice,
but base them on recommendations in
appropriate publications (e.g. PCA Design and
Control of Concrete Mixtures, Master-Builders
Chart, ACI Education Bulletin E4-12: Chemical
Admixtures for Concrete, etc.).
„ The following slides have information that will
be useful in the mix design process 10/22/2020 7
Additional Deliverables
„ Determine time intervals for compressive strength
testing. Age of the strength specimens is actually
another experimental factor. This will affect the
number of cylinders to be cast for strength testing.
„ Discuss in a qualitative manner (and quantitative, if
possible) the expected effects of the differing admixture
levels on the responses.
„ Use plots to supplement the discussion of results.
„ Be sure and report the estimated mean of the low
admixture dosage mix response along with the number
of replicate tests needed. Note: This requirement can be
met by including screen shots of the webpage in your
report.

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Design of Experiment (10-12-20)
CE 3116: DESIGN OF LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS Each student will design a lab experiment to study the effect of various admixtures (the experimental factors or independent variables) on the slump, air content, and 28-day compressive strength (the experimental responses or dependent variables) of a control concrete mix at one water-cement (w/c) ratio. Each group is assigned a specific admixture or supplementary cementitious material:
Table 1: Assignments
Group Admixture 1A, 5C, 9B, 13D Air entrainment 2A, 6C, 10B, 14D Accelerator 3A, 7C, 11B Class C Fly ash (partial cement replacement) 4A, 8C, 12B Silica Fume (addition to cement)
GIVEN:
Control Mix Design Parameters:
x The control mix is to be non-air-entrained with the design slump = 4″, and the NMS of coarse aggregate = ¾″.
x The DRUW of coarse aggregate, fineness modulus of sand, and specific gravities to be used are those given in the Labs 1 and 2A Mix Design Data and calculation. Use a specific gravity of 2.9 for the class C fly ash and 2.4 for the silica fume.
x Total moisture content, absorption, and surface moisture values listed on the Lab 2A Mix Design Handout will not be needed for this exercise as you are to calculate
design proportions, not batch proportions.
x Use your squad’s w/c.
Statistics:
Slump and Air Content:
x MEANS (or averages): Use the “mean” (design) values for control mix slump and air content. The control mix design slump = 4″, as given above. The assumed approximate air content for the control mix comes from Table 9-5 in the Lab 2A Handout example mix design problem.
x STANDARD DEVIATIONS: Use standard deviations (S) that are calculated based on the results of the Outlier Analysis in the Lab 2A Common Datasheet for slump for your w/c, but excluding mixtures with admixtures, and air content across all mixtures
without an AEA.
28-Day Compressive Strength:
x 28-day compressive strength (fc) means and standard deviations per w/c are based on the results of the Outlier Analysis for the Lab 2B Cylinder Test data. Only use the data for the mixtures without admixtures. Use mean and standard deviation for the mixture with the w/c corresponding to your squad’s mixture.
Design of Experiment (10-12-20) Table 2 in this document shall be filled out and included in the final report. REMEMBER TO USE ONLY THE REMAINING NON-OUTLIER DATA IN LAB 2A AND LAB 2B.
FIND:
x Choose 3 levels of treatment (control = zero admixture / SCM, and 2 admixture / SCM dosages).
x Calculate design (not batch) proportions of control and both modified mixtures (oven dry basis). Show calculations for all three mixtures!
x Choose wisely at least one additional interval of time (an additional experimental factor) for strength testing. This will affect the total number of compressive strength specimens to be cast, which shall be reported. Remember, a compressive strength “test” result is based on testing two or more specimens or cylinders.
x Determine number of replicate tests for slump, air content, and 28-day compressive strength testing (and, therefore, the necessary number of cylinders to be cast for 28- day testing; also to be reported) based on statistical concepts.
https://www.dssresearch.com/resources/calculators/statistical-power-calculatoraverage/ NOTE: It is only necessary to examine an estimated difference in test results between the control and low admixture / SCM dosage levels. Although the number of replicate tests for the high dosage level analysis would probably be less than that for the low dosage analysis because of the probable bigger differences between the control mix and high dosage mix responses, let us state that the same number of replicate tests determined in the low dosage analysis will be used for the high dosage level portion of the experiment. Include screen shots of the power calculator webpage for each replicate test determination.
x Discuss expected effects (qualitative at a minimum) of the differing admixture / SCM levels on slump, air content, and compressive strength (at selected intervals of time) in the context of your specific admixture assignment. Search the literature! NOTE: It is possible that some admixtures / SCMs may not have a significant effect on one or more of the experimental responses. For example, let’s say 1) you determine based on the literature search that your admixture / SCM may not or will not affect the air content of the fresh concrete, or 2) you cannot find information on your admixture’s effect on air content. Under either circumstance, report the result of your search. However, you still need to perform air content tests in your experiment (as well as slump and compressive strength). Therefore, determine the number of replicate air content tests to be performed using one standard deviation (1S) as the difference to be measured; i.e. the difference between the mean air content of the control mix and the estimated mean air content of the low dose admixture / SCM mix. Apply this same “1S” rule to any other admixture / SCM – response combination that may follow this example scenario. Assume: 1. Each concrete mixture can be mixed in one batch (i.e. no batch-to-batch variation) 2. Calculated standard deviations are the same for non-control (i.e. admixture / SCM) mixtures.
Design of Experiment (10-12-20)
x Use plots to supplement discussion of results (e.g. strength vs. time, strength vs. admixture level, slump vs. admixture level, etc.).
x Report any assumptions (given or added).
x List references. Additional references (assumed to be posted on Canvas): PCA Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures, ACI Education Bulletin E4-12: Chemical Admixtures for Concrete, ExptSize.pdf file, and lecture presentation.
Table 2: Statistics
Squad w/c fc (psi) Slump (in) Air Content (%) 3A 0.45 4A 0.45 11B 0.45 12B 0.45 Mean * S * * 7C 0.45 + SP 8C 0.45 + SP 5C 0.55 6C 0.55 13D 0.55 14D 0.55 Mean * S * * * *These values are needed for determining the required number of replicate tests (or “sample size” on the power calculator website)
Design of Experiment (10-12-20)
Checklist & Point Distribution. ONLY INDIVIDUAL REPORTS! Total Possible Points = 80
x Title Page [1 point]
x Executive Summary [9 points: must include, at a minimum, a short description of the task, the number of replicate tests to be performed per response, and expected effects of assigned admixture on responses]
x Introduction [3 point: a more detailed description of the task]
x Proposed Work Plan/Lab Investigation
o Determine 2 reasonable admixture or SCM dosage levels [6 points]
o Concrete mix design calculations [16 points total; for any liquid admixture mix design, much heavier weight is given to the control mix calculations since liquid admixture doses are easy to calculate once the control mix design proportions are determined]
o Table 2 filled out and calculations performed correctly [14 points]
o Additional interval of time for compressive strength testing chosen [1 point]
o Screen shots of power calculator webpage for each of the 3 replicate test determinations [9 points]
x Discuss expected effects (qualitative at a minimum) of the differing admixture levels on slump, air content, and compressive strength [9 points total]
x Plots to supplement discussion [9 points total: discretion will be used by the grader to allocate the points; i.e. if an admixture does not seem to affect a particular response, there is no reason to generate a plot for this circumstance but this scenario should be reported]
x Assumptions reported [2 points]
x References listed [1 point]

 

Design of Experiment (10-12-20)
CE 3116: DESIGN OF LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS Each student will design a lab experiment to study the effect of various admixtures (the experimental factors or independent variables) on the slump, air content, and 28-day compressive strength (the experimental responses or dependent variables) of a control concrete mix at one water-cement (w/c) ratio. Each group is assigned a specific admixture or supplementary cementitious material:
Table 1: Assignments
Group Admixture 1A, 5C, 9B, 13D Air entrainment 2A, 6C, 10B, 14D Accelerator 3A, 7C, 11B Class C Fly ash (partial cement replacement) 4A, 8C, 12B Silica Fume (addition to cement)
GIVEN:
Control Mix Design Parameters:
x The control mix is to be non-air-entrained with the design slump = 4″, and the NMS of coarse aggregate = ¾″.
x The DRUW of coarse aggregate, fineness modulus of sand, and specific gravities to be used are those given in the Labs 1 and 2A Mix Design Data and calculation. Use a specific gravity of 2.9 for the class C fly ash and 2.4 for the silica fume.
x Total moisture content, absorption, and surface moisture values listed on the Lab 2A Mix Design Handout will not be needed for this exercise as you are to calculate
design proportions, not batch proportions.
x Use your squad’s w/c.
Statistics:
Slump and Air Content:
x MEANS (or averages): Use the “mean” (design) values for control mix slump and air content. The control mix design slump = 4″, as given above. The assumed approximate air content for the control mix comes from Table 9-5 in the Lab 2A Handout example mix design problem.
x STANDARD DEVIATIONS: Use standard deviations (S) that are calculated based on the results of the Outlier Analysis in the Lab 2A Common Datasheet for slump for your w/c, but excluding mixtures with admixtures, and air content across all mixtures
without an AEA.
28-Day Compressive Strength:
x 28-day compressive strength (fc) means and standard deviations per w/c are based on the results of the Outlier Analysis for the Lab 2B Cylinder Test data. Only use the data for the mixtures without admixtures. Use mean and standard deviation for the mixture with the w/c corresponding to your squad’s mixture.
Design of Experiment (10-12-20) Table 2 in this document shall be filled out and included in the final report. REMEMBER TO USE ONLY THE REMAINING NON-OUTLIER DATA IN LAB 2A AND LAB 2B.
FIND:
x Choose 3 levels of treatment (control = zero admixture / SCM, and 2 admixture / SCM dosages).
x Calculate design (not batch) proportions of control and both modified mixtures (oven dry basis). Show calculations for all three mixtures!
x Choose wisely at least one additional interval of time (an additional experimental factor) for strength testing. This will affect the total number of compressive strength specimens to be cast, which shall be reported. Remember, a compressive strength “test” result is based on testing two or more specimens or cylinders.
x Determine number of replicate tests for slump, air content, and 28-day compressive strength testing (and, therefore, the necessary number of cylinders to be cast for 28- day testing; also to be reported) based on statistical concepts.
https://www.dssresearch.com/resources/calculators/statistical-power-calculatoraverage/ NOTE: It is only necessary to examine an estimated difference in test results between the control and low admixture / SCM dosage levels. Although the number of replicate tests for the high dosage level analysis would probably be less than that for the low dosage analysis because of the probable bigger differences between the control mix and high dosage mix responses, let us state that the same number of replicate tests determined in the low dosage analysis will be used for the high dosage level portion of the experiment. Include screen shots of the power calculator webpage for each replicate test determination.
x Discuss expected effects (qualitative at a minimum) of the differing admixture / SCM levels on slump, air content, and compressive strength (at selected intervals of time) in the context of your specific admixture assignment. Search the literature! NOTE: It is possible that some admixtures / SCMs may not have a significant effect on one or more of the experimental responses. For example, let’s say 1) you determine based on the literature search that your admixture / SCM may not or will not affect the air content of the fresh concrete, or 2) you cannot find information on your admixture’s effect on air content. Under either circumstance, report the result of your search. However, you still need to perform air content tests in your experiment (as well as slump and compressive strength). Therefore, determine the number of replicate air content tests to be performed using one standard deviation (1S) as the difference to be measured; i.e. the difference between the mean air content of the control mix and the estimated mean air content of the low dose admixture / SCM mix. Apply this same “1S” rule to any other admixture / SCM – response combination that may follow this example scenario. Assume: 1. Each concrete mixture can be mixed in one batch (i.e. no batch-to-batch variation) 2. Calculated standard deviations are the same for non-control (i.e. admixture / SCM) mixtures.
Design of Experiment (10-12-20)
x Use plots to supplement discussion of results (e.g. strength vs. time, strength vs. admixture level, slump vs. admixture level, etc.).
x Report any assumptions (given or added).
x List references. Additional references (assumed to be posted on Canvas): PCA Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures, ACI Education Bulletin E4-12: Chemical Admixtures for Concrete, ExptSize.pdf file, and lecture presentation.
Table 2: Statistics
Squad w/c fc (psi) Slump (in) Air Content (%) 3A 0.45 4A 0.45 11B 0.45 12B 0.45 Mean * S * * 7C 0.45 + SP 8C 0.45 + SP 5C 0.55 6C 0.55 13D 0.55 14D 0.55 Mean * S * * * *These values are needed for determining the required number of replicate tests (or “sample size” on the power calculator website)
Design of Experiment (10-12-20)
Checklist & Point Distribution. ONLY INDIVIDUAL REPORTS! Total Possible Points = 80
x Title Page [1 point]
x Executive Summary [9 points: must include, at a minimum, a short description of the task, the number of replicate tests to be performed per response, and expected effects of assigned admixture on responses]
x Introduction [3 point: a more detailed description of the task]
x Proposed Work Plan/Lab Investigation
o Determine 2 reasonable admixture or SCM dosage levels [6 points]
o Concrete mix design calculations [16 points total; for any liquid admixture mix design, much heavier weight is given to the control mix calculations since liquid admixture doses are easy to calculate once the control mix design proportions are determined]
o Table 2 filled out and calculations performed correctly [14 points]
o Additional interval of time for compressive strength testing chosen [1 point]
o Screen shots of power calculator webpage for each of the 3 replicate test determinations [9 points]
x Discuss expected effects (qualitative at a minimum) of the differing admixture levels on slump, air content, and compressive strength [9 points total]
x Plots to supplement discussion [9 points total: discretion will be used by the grader to allocate the points; i.e. if an admixture does not seem to affect a particular response, there is no reason to generate a plot for this circumstance but this scenario should be reported]
x Assumptions reported [2 points]
x References listed [1 point]

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