Discussion on Final Quiz Required Readings and Other Perspective Readings

BUS 4474 final quiz
Two files are given, please read the document patiently. You should read some articles to help you finish the work.

MEMORANDUM TO: BUS 4474 (Dothan and On-Line)

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FROM: Dr. Ames

DATE: 7 November 2020

RE:  Final Quiz Required Readings and Other Perspective Readings


I have set out below articles that have either been listed in one or more Assignment Appendices as required readings or that are offered as suggested perspective articles.  The designated required readings should be considered as preparation for the Final Quiz: The articles that are designated by asterisks are those that have previously been designated as required readings.  They are the only required readings.  Other than those articles, I am not making any of the other articles required readings.  However, I reserve the right to make references to any of those articles, not in article-specific questions, but as general framing of questions.


  1. Linda Klebe Trevino, et al., Moral Person and Moral Manager: How Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership, 42 California Management Review 128 (2000).*
  2. Linda Klebe Trevino, Ethical Decision Making in Organizations: A Person-situation Interactionist Model, 11 Academy of Management Review 601 (1986).*
  3. Thomas M. Jones, Ethical Decision Making by Individuals in Organizations: An Issue-Contingent Model, 16 Academy of Management Review 366 (1991).*
  4. James R. Rest, et al., A Neo-Kohlbergian Approach to Morality Research 381 (2000).
  5. Erik Dane & Michael G. Pratt, Exploring Intuition and Its Role in Managerial Decision Making, 32 Academy of Management Review 33 (2007).
  6. Scott J. Reynolds, A Neurocognitive Model of the Ethical Decision-Making Process: Implications for Study and Practice, 91 Journal of Applied Psychology 737 (2006).
  7. Keith Leavitt, et al., Good Without Knowing It: Subtle Contextual Cues Can Activate Moral Identity and Reshape Moral Intuition, 137 Journal of Business Ethics 785 (2016).
  8. Christopher Freiman, How Neuroscience Can Vindicate Moral Intuition, 18 Ethic Theory Moral Practice 1011 (2015).
  9. Lars Jacob Tynes Pedersen, See No Evil: Moral Sensitivity in the Formulation of Business Problems, 18 Business Ethics: A European Review 335 (2009).
  10. Sumantra Ghoshal, Bad Management Theories Are Destroying Good Management Practices, 4 Academy of Management Learning & Education 75 (2005).
  11. Scott J. Reynolds, et al., Automatic Ethics: The Effects of Implicit Assumptions and Contextual Cues on Moral Behavior, 95 Journal of Applied Psychology 752 (2010).
  12. Lamberto Zollo, et al., What Sparks Ethical Decision Making? The Interplay Between Moral Intuitions and Moral Reasoning: Lessons from the Scholastic Doctrine, 145 Journal of Business Ethics 681 (2017).
  13. John Hasnas, The Normative Theories of Business Ethics: A Guide for the Perplexed, 8 Business Ethics Quarterly 19 (1998).
  14. Marvin Claybourn, Relationships Between Moral Disengagement, Work Characteristics and Workplace Harassment, 100 Journal of Business Ethics 283 (2011).
  15. Katherine A. DeCelles & Michael D. Pfarrer, Heroes or Villains? Corruption and the Charismatic Leader, 11 Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies 67 (2004).
  16. Al Gini, Business, Ethics, and Leadership in a Post Enron Era, 11 Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies 9 (2004).





BUS 4474

2020 T2




Final Quiz


19 November 2020









By submitting these responses, I hereby certify and affirm that I have neither given, nor received, any aid of any type to, or from, any of my classmates or any other students on this Quiz.  I further certify and affirm that, if I used any sources, other than the text, Dr. Ames’ Materials, sources that he cited or provided to us, and our in-class discussions, I have given full attribution to those sources and to the authors.




This is a fully open book Quiz.  However, see the above Certification, to include the requirement if outside sources are used.  The Quiz is worth 40 points of your final grade.

This Quiz is being placed on Canvas on Thursday, 19 November.  Your submissions are due to be e-mailed directly to me (oames@troy.edu) by no later than Monday, 30 November at 10:00 a.m.  Central Time.  Your responses are to be placed on this Quiz and e-mailed directly to me by no later than 10:00 a.m. on 30 November.  Do not place your responses on Canvas.

There will be no formal class meetings on 26 November (Thanksgiving Holiday), 3 December, or 10 December.  That will give you open time to work on this Quiz and your other writing projects, to include your Certification program Modules, the post-class assessment problem, and your Engagement Project paper.



Note the personal information and the Certification set out above.  Both must be on your submissions.

The Quiz contains ten (10) Short Answer, seven (7) Longer Answer questions, and four (4) Bonus Questions. The Short Answer and Longer Answer questions are each worth 3 points.

A Bonus Question is worth 5-points.   Depending on the quality of your answer, the points that you can get from responding to a Bonus Question will be added to any raw score of fifty-one (51) points that you make on the questions in the main portion of the Quiz.  You may elect to respond or to not respond to a Bonus Question.  If you do not respond, there is no penalty.  If you do respond, whatever the credit your response warrants, will be added to your basic Quiz raw score.

If you elect to respond to a Bonus Question, select ONLY one.  Do not answer all of the Bonus Questions.  Each Bonus Question is worth the same number of points i.e. 5.

Since this is a word document, you should place your answers on it to correspond to the questions on this document.  This document, in its entirety with your responses, is what is to be e-mailed to me.










Short Answer


For Each of the Statements, etc. Set Out Below, Tell Which Type(s) of Psychological Biases, Which Aspects of Person-Situation Considerations as Advanced by Trevino,[1]  Which Issue-Contingent Considerations as Advanced by Jones,[2] and or Which Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement as Advanced by Robert Bandura and others, Are Exhibited by the Statement[3]


  1. You are the CEO of a company. Your CFO observes about the VP of Marketing the following:  “That guy is so caught up in himself and confident that he won’t listen to a word that I have to say about the costs of marketing initiatives or anything else that I recommend to him.”  (Respond based on the personality of the VP of Marketing)
  2. A female manager, during an internal investigation regarding sexual harassment of a male employee says: “He was always well-dressed and he always looked so professional, but he always looked “hot.” What was a woman like I am to do?  Sure, I knew that he worked for me, but the way that he conducted himself, I just could not avoid hitting on him.  Furthermore, he was always a little flirtatious. I thought that I was pursuing shared feelings.”
  3. The VP of Marketing of your company says to you: “Our competitors have done this for years. Everyone in this segment of the industry does it.  It’s a war out there and we have to be able to compete.”
  4. With respect to the VP’s statement above, he adds the following additional comment: “Besides, we are not doing anything that compares in any way with the more problematic conduct that our competitors are doing.”
  5. During your investigation of a plant injury at one of your company’s plants, the Supervisor of a subcontractor says: “I understand that I was responsible for my crew when we went into the plant to clean during a shut down, but I relied on the manager of the plant, who spoke to my crew before we started, to fully warn all of us of the dangers in the plant. Sure, I saw the man lift and how dangerous it appeared, but I relied on the manager.”
  6. At a Board meeting of your company, the VP of Global Development says: “As the VP for Global Development of this company, I have decided to put our new manufacturing facility in Hoisan, Vietnam. I know that the plant will manufacture one of our company’s highly toxic chemicals, but we will be putting the plant in a sparsely populated area occupied primarily by Vietnamese farmers who grow rice.  It’s not like we are going to put it in Dothan, Alabama. There will be no Americans involved in the operation.”
  7. That VP also says, “Besides, that facility will not be up and running for three years. That’s a long time from now.”
  8. You are the Manager of Trade Relations for a large multinational company. A team that you assigned to study an emerging market for your company’s products in Sri Lanka concluded that the market was viable and that, for your company’s purposes, the country was politically stable.  The Team Leader gives you the Team’s Report on Tuesday.  The next day, there is a military coup in that country.  You call in the Team Leader and ask how in the world he could have made the recommendation in the Report.  His response is: “It was a team decision and I was simply a member of the Team.”
  9. In the story of the crucifixion of Jesus, after a trial before the Sanhedrin, Caifus, the Chief Priest of Jerusalem, and the other Priests, took Jesus to Pontius Pilate. Pilate eventually asked the people who they wanted saved. They selected Barabbas and responded that they wanted Jesus crucified.  Pilate then took water and washed his hands in front of the crowd saying, “I am innocent of the blood of this just person: see ye to it.”[4]
  10. As the Manager of HR in your company, you are interviewing a candidate for the position of VP of Marketing. You know that he had been terminated by his former company.  You and he, therefore, discuss what happened, why, etc.  During that discussion, he blames others in his former organization for his termination.


Longer Answer


  1. In his article titled The Normative Theories of Business Ethics: A Guide for the Perplexed,[5] Professor John Hasnas makes the following observation: “To deceive someone into doing something he or she would not otherwise agree to do would be to use him or her merely as a means to one’s own ends.” On what ethical theory is this perspective based? Explain.
  2. In her article titled Ethical Decision Making in Organizations: a Person-Situation Interactionist Model,[6] Professor Linda Klebe Trevino addresses a personal characteristic of “Locus of Control.” Describe that concept as it relates to ethical decision making.
  3. In his article titled Ethical Decision Making by Individuals in Organizations: An Issue-Contingent Model,[7] Professor Jones describes six issue-contingent situations/considerations that are relevant to ethical decision making. What are they?




  1. In her article titled Moral Person and Moral Manager: How Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership,[8] Professor Trevino observes that there are both internal and external dimensions of a person’s morality. What relevance do her observations have to the concept of Moral Identity that we studied?
  2. The results of the Defining Issues Test (DIT) over the years have lead Rest, Toma, Navarez, and Babeau to reconceptualize Kohlberg’s original work, in which Kohlberg developed the concept of “stages” of moral development to demonstrate the progression of a person’s moral development. In their article titled: A Neo-Kohlbergian Approach to Morality Research,[9] they explain their reconceptualization of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development by not by referring to formal stages, but by using what psychological concept?
  3. We have discussed moral courage. With respect to moral courage of managers in workplace settings, the following has been observed: “Their practices in response to ethical challenges shape workplace routines and thus the ethical culture of the organization.  By explaining [professional moral courage] as a feature of managerial performance, organizations can better prepare, educate, support, and reward organizational members . . .  In doing so, leaders can be influential in building the worth of their organization and the strength of their ethical culture.”[10]  Do you agree?  Explain why you agree or disagree.  Incorporate concepts that we have discussed in your responses.
  4. Some years ago, Stanley Milgram performed experiments on volunteers which involved allegedly applying electrical shocks to persons by subjects of the experiment when directed to do so by a person in a position of authority. What psychological phenomenon that directly applies to ethical dilemmas did his experiments reveal?










Bonus Questions


Bonus Question One


Are the concepts of schemas and scripts essential to an understanding of an effective compliance and ethics training program?  When you respond, describe what schemas and scripts are and how they are or are not relevant to compliance and ethics training programs.


Bonus Question Two


According to Professor Lars Jacob Tynes Pedersen in his article titled See No Evil: Moral Sensitivity in the Formulation of Business Problems,[11] research done by Professor Sumantra Goshal, as reflected in his article titled Bad Management Theories Are Destroying Good Management Practices,[12] shows that the curricula in business schools, and what is being taught, propogate ideologically inspired amoral theories that free business students from their sense of moral responsibility.  Do you agree or disagree?  Explain your position.


Bonus Question Three


With respect to the observations of Professor Pedersen addressed in Bonus Question Two above, how do the concepts of scripts and framing relate to those observations?


Bonus Question Four


A manager’s purposeful use of framing language to get his employees to accomplish a certain morally questionable project which involves the purchase of sacred Seminole Indian burial grounds in southern Florida for the development of a new condominium project would diminish the employees’ moral space and confirm MacIntyre’s criticism of managers.  Do you agree or disagree?  Explain.













Copyright 2020

Orrin K. Ames III

















[1] See Linda Klebe Trevino, Ethical Decision Making in Organizations: A Person-Situation Interactionist Model, 11 Acad. Mgmt. Rev. 601 (1986).

[2] See Thomas M. Jones, Ethical Decision Making by Individuals in Organizations: An Issue Contingent Model, 16 Adad. Mgmt. Rev. 366 (1991). This article was also covered in my Materials which you were required to read.

[3] Note that for each vignette, there might be more than one bias or mechanism.  If that is the case, select the one that you believe is primary.  I only need one.  There might be more than one vignette that reflects the same bias or mechanism.  That is ok.  Just put down the one that you think is primary for that particular vignette.  In your responses, use the language that we have used in class and what you have learned.

[4] Matthew 27:24, The Holy Bible.

[5] 8 Bus. Ethics Q. 19 (1998).

[6] See Trevino supra note 1.

[7] See Jones supra note 2.

[8] 42 Cal. Mgmt. Rev. 128 (2000).

[9] 29 J. Moral Edu. 381 (2000).

[10] Leslie E. Skeerka, et al., Facing Ethical Challenges in the Workplace: Conceptualizing and Measuring Professional Moral Courage, 89 J. Bus. Ethics 565, 567 (2009).

[11] 18 Bus. Ethics: A Euro. Review 335 (2009).

[12] 4 Acad. Mgmt. Learning & Edu. 75 (2005).

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