Discussion on Fundamentals of cell biology

Fundamentals of cell biology very short passages, 21 questions

Conflict theories
Conflict vs. Consensus
• Consensus
• Law is based on the will of people and the common good
• The state mediates conflicts in pursuit of these goals
• Harmony holds society together
• Conflict
• Law reflects the interests of those in power to maintain authority
• State mediates to protect interests of the powerful
• Competing interests hold society together
Conflict theories
• Explain the behavior of law
• Those in power make the laws to protect their interests
• Also implement the law
• Describe that crime results from conflicts among groups or
cultures
• Commit crime to attain power
• Attain resources they don’t have access to
Conflict theories
Marx noted that some nations enacted laws criminalizing certain
traditional behaviors and ways of life that may have impeded
the progress of industrialization, and anticipated the use of the
law as a means to protect and further the interests of the
capitalist class
Conflict theories
• 1909 Smoking Opium Act
• Banning Ethnic Studies courses
• Crack Cocaine Sentencing laws

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How does the Law exist in Capitalist
Societies?
• Emphasizes and preserves private property,
which belongs to the ruling class
• Appearance of promoting legal equality to
pacify the powerless by making them feel
good about the status quo and obscuring
the true nature and extent of their
oppression
7
Karl Marx
• Capitalism
• Mode of production
• Bourgeoisie
• Proletariat
Marxist Theory
• Mode of production
– Relates to idea of factory system of workers and labor
– Mode of production defines economy of a society
• Mean of production
– Those who own production are the ruling class, those who
operate (work) are the controlled class
• A monopoly of the means allows the ruling class to
control the political state
Culture Conflict
• Sellin claimed that separate cultures will
diverge from a unitary, mainstream set of
norms and values held by the dominant group
in society
• Minority groups that break off from the
mainstream will establish their own norms
– Reflect only the values and interests of the
dominant group, which causes border culture
conflict
10
Culture Conflict
• as a result of colonization when the colonizer
replaces the colonized groups’ norms with their own;
• at border areas, where divergent groups cross into
each other’s territories (and normative structures); or
• as a result of migration, when members of an outside
group enter into the dominant group’s territory.
11
Bonger (1876–1940)

• It is not the absolute amount of wealth that affects
crime but its distribution
– If wealth is unequally distributed and people believe
wealth means superiority, then the inferior will be
crime-prone
• The economic system will intensify personal
disadvantages and will increase propensity to
commit crime
– Crime will disappear if society progresses from
competitive capitalism, to monopoly capitalism
Crime is not real but socially created
13
Richard
Quinney
The Social Reality of Crime
1. Advanced capitalist economy is the foundation of American
society
2. State works to serve the interests of the capitalist ruling class
3. Criminal law is merely an instrument of that class to
perpetuate the current social and economic order
14
The Social Reality of Crime
4. Variety of institutions run by governmental elites representing
the interests of the ruling class, are utilized for crime control
with the purpose of establishing domestic order
5. The coercion and violence of the legal system are necessary
to maintain the required oppression of the subordinate classes,
because of the inherent contradictions of advanced capitalism
6. A new society based on socialist principles is a necessary part
of the solution to crime control
15 The Social Reality of Crime
Current Conflict Theories
• Minority threat
• African American theory of offending
Racial/Minority threat Hypothesis
(Blalock 1967)
• The size and increase in the minority group threatens the
majority and leads to targeted laws
• Other institutions
• Hate crime
Racial/Minority threat Hypothesis
(Blalock 1967)
• Increases police forces/budgets
• Arrests
• Sentencing
• Capital Punishment
Racial/Minority threat Hypothesis

• Perceived minority threat strengthens support for the death
penalty (Jacobs & Kent 2007)
• Show region on the death penalty
• tests of hypotheses about lags suggest that public support and
Republican strength in the states influence yearly executions by their
effects on death sentences rather than the later appeals process.
Other dynamic results show that national level Republican strength,
presidential elections that emphasize law and order, economic
inequality, and higher murder rates increase yearly executions
because they affect the extremely influential but later appeals
process. Civil rights protests, however, immediately reduce both
public support and executions.

African American Theory of Offending
• James D. Unnever and Shaun L. Gabbidon
• Explain racial differences in offending
• Racial
• Ethnic
• Class stratification
African American Theory of Offending
“…even in comparison to other oppressed racial minorities such
as Asian Americans, Latinos, and American Indians, in terms of
their treatment at the hands of the White majority, African
Americans are ‘‘peerless.’’ None of the other groups are said to
have experienced the range, intensity, and duration of the racelinked brutalities aimed at Blacks.” (Hawkins, 2014: 177)
African American Theory of Offending
• Experience of discrimination at the heart of African American
offending
• Racial socialization influences this process:
• Messages from parents/grandparents to kids about values, attitudes,
beliefs about the meaning of race and interracial interactions
• Passing on knowledge to resist internalizing negative labels and how to
cope with discrimination
African American Theory of Offending
1. Parents who do not racially socialize put kids at risk of
experiencing negative effects of racial injustices
• Youth will construct negative identities from peers and white
dominant culture
• Develop resentment about white-dominated culture
• Develop weak bonds to society
African American Theory of Offending
2. Blacks who are chronically exposed to racial injustices and
are stereotyped are more likely to offend if parents taught them
not to trust the system
• Encourage children to be overly defiant
• More likely to develop stigma consciousness
African American Theory of Offending
3. If child is ill-prepared for racial injustices they may express
stress responses and ineffective coping skills leading to crime
Discussion Question
How do histories of oppression and negative bias and
stereotyping influence deviant behavior?
Much of the literature and research focus on African Americans,
but consider how might these same systems of oppression,
negative bias, and stereotyping impact other groups (i.e.,
American Indians)?

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