Discussion on Fundamentals of cell biology

Fundamentals of cell biology very short passages, 21 questions

Conflict theories
Conflict vs. Consensus
• Consensus
• Law is based on the will of people and the common good
• The state mediates conflicts in pursuit of these goals
• Harmony holds society together
• Conflict
• Law reflects the interests of those in power to maintain authority
• State mediates to protect interests of the powerful
• Competing interests hold society together
Conflict theories
• Explain the behavior of law
• Those in power make the laws to protect their interests
• Also implement the law
• Describe that crime results from conflicts among groups or
• Commit crime to attain power
• Attain resources they don’t have access to
Conflict theories
Marx noted that some nations enacted laws criminalizing certain
traditional behaviors and ways of life that may have impeded
the progress of industrialization, and anticipated the use of the
law as a means to protect and further the interests of the
capitalist class
Conflict theories
• 1909 Smoking Opium Act
• Banning Ethnic Studies courses
• Crack Cocaine Sentencing laws

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Discussion on Fundamentals of cell biology
Just from $10/Page
Order Essay

How does the Law exist in Capitalist
• Emphasizes and preserves private property,
which belongs to the ruling class
• Appearance of promoting legal equality to
pacify the powerless by making them feel
good about the status quo and obscuring
the true nature and extent of their
Karl Marx
• Capitalism
• Mode of production
• Bourgeoisie
• Proletariat
Marxist Theory
• Mode of production
– Relates to idea of factory system of workers and labor
– Mode of production defines economy of a society
• Mean of production
– Those who own production are the ruling class, those who
operate (work) are the controlled class
• A monopoly of the means allows the ruling class to
control the political state
Culture Conflict
• Sellin claimed that separate cultures will
diverge from a unitary, mainstream set of
norms and values held by the dominant group
in society
• Minority groups that break off from the
mainstream will establish their own norms
– Reflect only the values and interests of the
dominant group, which causes border culture
Culture Conflict
• as a result of colonization when the colonizer
replaces the colonized groups’ norms with their own;
• at border areas, where divergent groups cross into
each other’s territories (and normative structures); or
• as a result of migration, when members of an outside
group enter into the dominant group’s territory.
Bonger (1876–1940)

• It is not the absolute amount of wealth that affects
crime but its distribution
– If wealth is unequally distributed and people believe
wealth means superiority, then the inferior will be
• The economic system will intensify personal
disadvantages and will increase propensity to
commit crime
– Crime will disappear if society progresses from
competitive capitalism, to monopoly capitalism
Crime is not real but socially created
The Social Reality of Crime
1. Advanced capitalist economy is the foundation of American
2. State works to serve the interests of the capitalist ruling class
3. Criminal law is merely an instrument of that class to
perpetuate the current social and economic order
The Social Reality of Crime
4. Variety of institutions run by governmental elites representing
the interests of the ruling class, are utilized for crime control
with the purpose of establishing domestic order
5. The coercion and violence of the legal system are necessary
to maintain the required oppression of the subordinate classes,
because of the inherent contradictions of advanced capitalism
6. A new society based on socialist principles is a necessary part
of the solution to crime control
15 The Social Reality of Crime
Current Conflict Theories
• Minority threat
• African American theory of offending
Racial/Minority threat Hypothesis
(Blalock 1967)
• The size and increase in the minority group threatens the
majority and leads to targeted laws
• Other institutions
• Hate crime
Racial/Minority threat Hypothesis
(Blalock 1967)
• Increases police forces/budgets
• Arrests
• Sentencing
• Capital Punishment
Racial/Minority threat Hypothesis

• Perceived minority threat strengthens support for the death
penalty (Jacobs & Kent 2007)
• Show region on the death penalty
• tests of hypotheses about lags suggest that public support and
Republican strength in the states influence yearly executions by their
effects on death sentences rather than the later appeals process.
Other dynamic results show that national level Republican strength,
presidential elections that emphasize law and order, economic
inequality, and higher murder rates increase yearly executions
because they affect the extremely influential but later appeals
process. Civil rights protests, however, immediately reduce both
public support and executions.

African American Theory of Offending
• James D. Unnever and Shaun L. Gabbidon
• Explain racial differences in offending
• Racial
• Ethnic
• Class stratification
African American Theory of Offending
“…even in comparison to other oppressed racial minorities such
as Asian Americans, Latinos, and American Indians, in terms of
their treatment at the hands of the White majority, African
Americans are ‘‘peerless.’’ None of the other groups are said to
have experienced the range, intensity, and duration of the racelinked brutalities aimed at Blacks.” (Hawkins, 2014: 177)
African American Theory of Offending
• Experience of discrimination at the heart of African American
• Racial socialization influences this process:
• Messages from parents/grandparents to kids about values, attitudes,
beliefs about the meaning of race and interracial interactions
• Passing on knowledge to resist internalizing negative labels and how to
cope with discrimination
African American Theory of Offending
1. Parents who do not racially socialize put kids at risk of
experiencing negative effects of racial injustices
• Youth will construct negative identities from peers and white
dominant culture
• Develop resentment about white-dominated culture
• Develop weak bonds to society
African American Theory of Offending
2. Blacks who are chronically exposed to racial injustices and
are stereotyped are more likely to offend if parents taught them
not to trust the system
• Encourage children to be overly defiant
• More likely to develop stigma consciousness
African American Theory of Offending
3. If child is ill-prepared for racial injustices they may express
stress responses and ineffective coping skills leading to crime
Discussion Question
How do histories of oppression and negative bias and
stereotyping influence deviant behavior?
Much of the literature and research focus on African Americans,
but consider how might these same systems of oppression,
negative bias, and stereotyping impact other groups (i.e.,
American Indians)?

Get professional assignment help cheaply

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer.

Why choose our academic writing service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently







Order a unique copy of this paper
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

We value our customers and so we ensure that what we do is 100% original..
With us you are guaranteed of quality work done by our qualified experts.Your information and everything that you do with us is kept completely confidential.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

The Product ordered is guaranteed to be original. Orders are checked by the most advanced anti-plagiarism software in the market to assure that the Product is 100% original. The Company has a zero tolerance policy for plagiarism.

Read more

Free-revision policy

The Free Revision policy is a courtesy service that the Company provides to help ensure Customer’s total satisfaction with the completed Order. To receive free revision the Company requires that the Customer provide the request within fourteen (14) days from the first completion date and within a period of thirty (30) days for dissertations.

Read more

Privacy policy

The Company is committed to protect the privacy of the Customer and it will never resell or share any of Customer’s personal information, including credit card data, with any third party. All the online transactions are processed through the secure and reliable online payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By placing an order with us, you agree to the service we provide. We will endear to do all that it takes to deliver a comprehensive paper as per your requirements. We also count on your cooperation to ensure that we deliver on this mandate.

Read more

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Open chat
You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp! Via +1 817 953 0426

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.

Order your essay today and save 20% with the discount code VICTORY