Discussion on Language and Power Final

b’Subject: Sociology’
b’Topic: Language and Power Final’
b’Consider how discourse influences and is influenced by contemporary institutions or ideologies, and how it shapes ideologies of power, control, injustice, inequality, social change, and emancipation. In addition, you will create a discourse of your own that responds to the topic discussed in your chosen samples. \nSample One – Apology by Senator Yoho to AOC \nhttps://video.foxnews.com/v/6174014596001#sp=show-clips\nSample Two – Response by AOC to Senator Yoho \nhttps://video.foxnews.com/v/6174392225001#sp=show-clips\nOcasio-Cortez indicating as well on Twitter that she did not accept the apology, saying how Yoho didn\’t “apologize or name any action he did,” or “accept responsibility.”\n\nIn this public speech/news story, review the discourse sample you have chosen. Consider the theories of discourse analysis studied so far in this course and how they might be applied to the discourse to better understand the author\xe2\x80\x99s intention, the work\xe2\x80\x99s meaning, and possible interpretations by readers.\n\n Part 1\nAnalyze the chosen discourse using four concepts or theories of discourse analysis outlined in your course textbook and other required resources (i.e. use of lexical grammar, Grice\xe2\x80\x99s maxims, intertextuality, etc.).\n-Assess how language is used persuasively, offensively, effectively, or ineffectively to convey a particular social message or agenda.\nLocate two other discourse samples about the same topic.\nThese can be excerpts in the same genre, or you may draw from other genres (such as blogs, social media posts, Tweets, video clips, multi-media excerpts, etc.).\nCompare the arguments and language used in the additional excerpts to your chosen text, drawing upon concepts and theories of discourse analysis outlined in the course.\nAssess how the three discourse samples shape and are shaped by ideologies of power, control, injustice, inequality, social change, and emancipation.\nRemember to incorporate three credible sources (in addition to the course textbook and the three discourse samples) into your discussion. It is recommended that you find at least 3 sources. You may also use the articles listed under the Recommended Resources in each week of the course.\n \nPart 2\n\nCreate a blog post (of approximately 250 words), a Facebook post (approximately 250 words), a series of Tweets (250 words total), or an Infographic that responds to the topic discussed in your chosen text.\nYou may choose to agree with the views expressed in your chosen text, disagree with them, or merely address the issue in a new way. If you choose to create an Infographic, visit Canva (Links to an external site.) for access to a free online site that will assist you in creating the graphic. Watch Intro Tutorial for Making a Canva Infographic (Links to an external site.) for additional help.\nAssess the effectiveness of your discourse, referring to at least two concepts or theories discussed in the course.\nEvaluate how your discourse responds to the existing discourse(s) of contemporary institutions and ideologies.\n\n6 pages total / 4 for part 1 / 2 for Part 2\n\nPoints to make :\n-Comprehensively analyzes the chosen discourse using four concepts or theories of discourse analysis.\n-Comprehensively and clearly assesses how language is used persuasively, offensively, or in/effectively to convey a particular social message or agenda.\n-Clearly and accurately locates two additional discourse samples about the same topic.\n-Comprehensively and clearly assesses how the three discourse samples shape and are shaped by ideologies of power, control, injustice, inequality, social change, and emancipation.\n-Thoroughly, clearly, and accurately creates a blog post, Facebook post, series of Tweets, or infographic that responds to the topic discussed in the chosen text.\n-Comprehensively and clearly assesses the effectiveness of the created discourse, referring to at least two concepts or theories discussed in the course.\n-Comprehensively and clearly evaluates how the created discourse responds to the existing discourse(s) of contemporary institutions and ideologies.\nClearly evaluates own and others\’ assumptions and carefully determines the relevance of contexts when presenting a position.\n-Conclusions and related outcomes are logical and clearly reflect an informed evaluation and the ability to place evidence and perspectivnyzes discussed in priority order.’


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Analysis of Political or Gendered Discourse

LNG 330 Language and Power

November 2, 2020
















Introduction: Political leaders, lawyers, journalists, doctors, teachers all use language and text to convey their messages (Monika & Helen, 2014). This is because they have important things to say to society. This message may be relayed verbally or in some instances via text by the use of certain platforms (Monika & Helen, 2014).

Thesis / Body : The face of media is changing no matter who wins the 2020 election. This paper will critically analyze an online article from the New York Times magazine by use of the critical discourse analysis tools. The impact that the intentions of the author communicates will be very clear to the readers. Furthermore, the audience will have an idea of how language is used to convey certain messages or agendas.

Paragraph One / Body : The first theory that this paper will analyze is the use of argument (Lakoff & Johnson, 2017). The theory of argument is a tool used by writers to convince the readers of their content’s truthfulness. Most writers adopt the use of reason and evidence to communicate with this theory effectively.

Supporting Evidence : The New York Times Magazine recently wrote an article titled, ‘It is the End of an Era for the Media, No Matter Who Wins the Election.’ The author has adopted the use of various discourse analysis theories to convey their message effectively. For instance, the author pleads guilty of being an election rumor monger logically, which uses argument (Smith, 2020).

Explanation: The paper will analyze is the use of argument (Lakoff & Johnson, 2017). The theory of argument is a tool used by writers to convince the readers of their content’s truthfulness. Most writers adopt the use of reason and evidence to communicate with this theory effectively.

Explanation: As the author explains the news business after the presidency of Donald Trump, he states that Andrew Lack had warned that revenue would tumble if Hillary Clinton were elected to the presidency. The author undertakes to validate this point by following it with a statement from Jeff Zucker, who said that President Donald Trump had purchased the falling media business for his presidential term (Smith, 2020). The purpose of these statements is to give the reader evidence that President Trump’s presidency was sustaining the legacy media.

Paragraph Two / Body: second theory that the author has utilized to convey their message is narration. The theory of narration helps writers tell their stories effectively and create some empathetical connection with their readers to the article’s message (Lakoff & Johnson, 2017).

Explanation: In the New York Times magazine article, the author has efficiently deployed this tool throughout the paper. For instance, from the start of the article, the author immediately reflects on how he spent his days getting opinions from different politicians on the election results’ consequences (Smith, 2020). Also, the author uses this tool to explain the myriad of retirements that has befallen the industry.

Supporting Evidence: In this article gives the reader an insight into the workings of the news media industry. This helps to create an emotional connection between the author and the readers.

Paragraph Three/ Body The third theory that has been employed by the writer is expressive (Lakoff & Johnson, 2017). Expressive discourse mainly involves writings that are nonfiction in nature. For instance, Anne frank’s diary is an expressive discourse since it pertains to her ordeal during the Second World War (Lakoff & Johnson, 2017). The New York Times article is also nonfiction as it analyses the operations of the media industry and politicians on a day to day basis (Smith, 2020).

Paragraph Four / Body: The discourse that has been adopted by the author to convey the message is transactional. This type of discourse often propels the reader toward certain things. In the paper, the author adopts this theory and advises the readers to tweet for political news and jokes (Smith, 2020).

Supporting Evidence : In our course text the author offers the scenario of  “ It is all too common for a comment proffered as a suggestion to be taken as a promise, for an interaction intended, by all parties, to be persuasive to tur out to make everyone angry, or for an assertion of institutional power to be taken as an expression of unseemly toughness.”(Johnston 2018)

Paragraph Five / Body :The type of discourse that has been adopted by the author is the use of descriptive theory (Monika & Helen, 2014). . Descriptive theory in discourse analysis involves the use of a person’s five senses to explain some information about anything or anyone (Monika & Helen, 2014). In the paper, the author has used descriptive sentences and grammar.

Supporting evidence: In the New York Times magazine article, the author uses descriptive adjectives and nouns to show the relationship between the white house and fox news (Smith, 2020).  The use of this language helps to paint a mental picture to the audience of the impact President Donald Trump has over the media. This helps to ensure that the audience has a clear conscience on the message of the author.

Paragraph Six/ Body: The type of discourse that can effectively explain the article is exposition (Monika & Helen, 2014). Exposition theory entails the use of grammar or speech to inform another of certain things. There are various types of exposition techniques that are available to writers to enable them to communicate effectively (Monika & Helen, 2014).

They include tools like the definition of a word, cause, and effect, compare and contrast, analysis, and problem solution which all contribute to exposition in a communication (Monika & Helen, 2014). In the New York Times magazine article, ben smith has used exposition on several occasions to help further his agenda (Smith, 2020). The author has effectively given an analysis of the media business in the United States of America in his bid to show that indeed it is declining.

Explanation: Ben Smith has made a compare and contrast analysis of how things will look if either Joe Biden or President Trump wins the 2020 presidential elections (Smith, 2020). The impact of this kind of language is that the reader and audience of Ben Smith are aware of the actions of the media business. It is often hard in academic scenarios to find a paper that has properly applied the use of all these theories but in real life, it is possible just like the article.

Supporting Evidence: This article has realized several theories in one article and has effectively communicated the message of the paper. This has been seen as the writer used various theories back and forth throughout the paper and explained that the media business will face a lot of challenges in the future.  A prudent reader will only be able to decipher all of this by way of discourse analysis.



There are myriad of discourse analysis theories that are used in the analysis of a text. In the analysis of the New York Times magazine article by Ben Smith, the paper utilized the theories of argument, narration, expressive, and transactional discourse to understand the message communicated by the author. From the analysis, it is clear that the legacy news media business will be affected by the election results of 2020.



















Johnstone, B. (2018). Discourse analysis (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons. Retrieved from https://www.vitalsource.com

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (2017). Metaphors we live by. University of Chicago Press.

Monika, B., & Helen, C. (2014). Why do news values matter? Towards a new methodological framework for analyzing news discourse in Critical Discourse Analysis and beyond – Monika Bednarek, Helen Caple, 2014. SAGE Journals. Retrieved 2 November 2020, from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0957926513516041.

Smith, B. (2020). It’s the End of an Era for the Media, No Matter Who Wins the Election. Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2 November 2020, from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/11/01/business/media/ben-smith-election.html.



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