Discussion on Nursing theories change models

Theoretical Foundations

This section identifies the nursing theories and evidence-based practice change models that provide the foundation for the Direct Practice Improvement (DPI) Project. It also contains an explanation of how the problem under investigation relates to the nursing theories and evidence-based practice change models. The seminal source for each nursing theory and evidence-based change model should be identified and described. Please note: models and theories are not capitalized in APA style.The theories or models(s) guide the clinical questions and justify what is being measured (variables), as well as how those variables are related. This section also must include a discussion of how the clinical question(s) align with the a nursing theory or nursing model and illustrates how the project fits within other evidence, based on the theories or models. You are encouraged to use a change model to outline how the DPI project would be implemented in a healthcare organization. Please outline and define the change model steps or processes and how those steps are implemented for the DPI project. The learner should cite references reflective of the foundational, historical, and current literature in the field. Overall, the presentation should reflect that the learner understands the theory or model and its relevance to the project. The discussion should also reflect knowledge and familiarity with the historical development of the theories or models.CriterionLearner Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Chairperson Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Comments or Feedbacktheoretical FoundationsThis section identifies the nursing theory and (if used) change model that provide the foundation for the project. This section should present the theories or models(s) and explain how the problem under investigation relates to the theory or model. The theories or models(s) guide the clinical questions and justify what is being measured (variables) as well as how those variables are related.This section identifies the nursing theory and (if used) change model that provide the foundation for the project.This section identifies and describes the seminal source for each theory or model.This section discusses how the clinical question(s) align with the respective theories or models.This section illustrates how the project fits within other evidence-based literature on the theory or model.This section reflects understanding of the theory or model and its relevance to the project.This section cites references reflecting the foundational, historical, and current literature in the field.This section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, and uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, punctuation, and APA format.NOTE: Once the document has been approved by your chairperson and your committee and is ready to submit for AQR review, please remove all of these assessment tables from this document.Score 0 (not present); 1 (unacceptable; needs substantial edits); 2 (present but needs some editing); 3 (publication ready).

Review of the Literature

This section provides a broad, balanced overview of the existing literature related to the topic. It identifies themes, trends, and conflicts in methodology, design, and findings. It provides a synthesis of the existing literature, examines the contributions of the literature related to the topic, and presents an evaluation of the overall methodological strengths and weaknesses of the evidence. Through this synthesis, the gaps in evidence should become evident to the reader.This section describes the literature in related topic areas and its relevance to the project topic. It provides an overall analysis of the existing literature examining the contributions of this literature to the field, identifying the conflicts, and relating the themes and results to the project. Citations are provided for all ideas, concepts, and perspectives. The investigator’s personal opinions or perspectives are not included.The required components for this section include the following:· Chapter 2 needs to be at least 20-25 pages in length. It needs to include a minimum of 50 scholarly sources with 85% of sources published within the past 5 years. Additional sources do not necessarily need to be from the past 5 years.· Quantitative project: Describes each project variable in the project and discusses the prior evidence that has been done on the variable. Comment by Author: Please note that you may also use seminal works and other relevant literature that supports your topic concept.· Discusses the various methodologies and designs that have been used to provide evidence on topics related to the project. Uses this information to justify the design.· Relates the literature back to the DPI-project topic and the practice problem.· Argues the appropriateness of the practice improvement project’s instruments, measures, or approaches used to collect data.· Discusses topics related to the practice improvement project topic. This section may include (a) studies relating the variables (quantitative); (b) studies on related evidence-based research, such as factors associated with the topic; (c) studies on the instruments used to collect data; and (d) studies on the broad population for the project.· Set of topics discussed in the Review of Literature demonstrates a comprehensive understanding of the broad area in which the project topic exists.· Argues the appropriateness of the practice improvement project’s instruments, measures, or approaches used to collect data.· Each section within the Review of Literature includes an introductory paragraph that explains why the particular topic was explored relative to the practice improvement project topic.· Each section also requires a summary paragraph(s) that (a) compares and contrasts alternative perspectives on the topic, (b) provides a summary of the themes relative to the topic discussed that emerged from the literature, (c) discusses data from the various studies, and (d) identifies how themes are relevant to your practice improvement project topic.· The types of references that may be used in the literature review include empirical (original research) articles (MUST HAVE) evidence-based research, meta-analysis, systematic reviews, randomized control trials, or seminal works, peer-reviewed or scholarly journal articles, and books that are cutting-edge views on a topic.he body of a literature review can be organized in a variety of ways depending on the nature of the project. Work with your committee chairperson to determine the best way to organize this section of Chapter 2, as it pertains to your overall project design. This template organizes the evidence thematically as illustrated below.

Theme 1. Comment by Author: This heading is tagged with APA Style Level 3 heading [3.03]. To differentiate the Level 3 heading from the normal style of the text, write the Level 3 heading and tag it. Then, create the first paragraph of the subsection on the line below the theme heading. Then, place the cursor next to the theme heading. Hit the keys “cntrl + alt + enter.” This will create a “style break” so that the Level 3 heading and the normal paragraph do not connect but are formatted correctly on the same line. Comment by Author: Make sure you are replacing “Theme 1” (or subtheme) with the actual title of theme one. Do not include “Theme 1” in the title as it is just a placeholder.

You may want to organize this section by themes and subthemes. To do so, use the pattern below.

Subtheme 1. Comment by Author: This heading is tagged with APA Style Level 4 heading [3.03]. To differentiate the Level 4 heading from the normal style of the text, write the Level 4 heading and tag it. Then, create the first paragraph of the subsection on the line below the theme heading. Then, place the cursor next to the theme heading. Hit the keys “cntrl + alt + enter.” This will create a “style break” so that the Level 4 heading and the normal paragraph do not connect but are formatted correctly on the same line.Grouped findings related to Theme 1.Subtheme 2. Comment by Author: This heading is tagged with APA Style Level 4 heading [3.03]. To differentiate the Level 4 heading from the normal style of the text, write the Level 4 heading and tag it. Then, create the first paragraph of the subsection on the line below the theme heading. Then, place the cursor next to the theme heading. Hit the keys “cntrl + alt + enter.” This will create a “style break” so that the Level 4 heading and the normal paragraph do not connect but are formatted correctly on the same line.Grouped findings related to Theme 1.Subtheme 3. Comment by Author: This heading is tagged with APA Style Level 4 heading [3.03]. To differentiate the Level 4 heading from the normal style of the text, write the Level 4 heading and tag it. Then, create the first paragraph of the subsection on the line below the theme heading. Then, place the cursor next to the theme heading. Hit the keys “cntrl + alt + enter.” This will create a “style break” so that the Level 4 heading and the normal paragraph do not connect but are formatted correctly on the same line.Grouped findings related to Theme 1.

In a concluding paragraph, provide a synthesis of the evidence studies presented in Theme 1. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each project, as well as the variables, instrumentation, and findings of each project as they relate to each other and use the findings of the studies in the subtheme to build an argument for your project. Discuss what is missing or how the design or methodology could have changed in studies to improve the quality of the project. Discuss inconsistencies or gaps that emerge in the evidence providing opportunity for additional projects. Provide a transition sentence to the next theme. Comment by Author: This was updated. please check formatting!

Theme 2.

Please follow the same Theme-subtheme process as outlined above.Subtheme 1. Comment by Author: This heading is tagged with APA Style Level 4 heading [3.03]. To differentiate the Level 4 heading from the normal style of the text, write the Level 4 heading and tag it. Then, create the first paragraph of the subsection on the line below the theme heading. Then, place the cursor next to the theme heading. Hit the keys “cntrl + alt + enter.” This will create a “style break” so that the Level 4 heading and the normal paragraph do not connect but are formatted correctly on the same line.Grouped findings related to Theme 2.Subtheme 2. Comment by Author: This heading is tagged with APA Style Level 4 heading [3.03]. To differentiate the Level 4 heading from the normal style of the text, write the Level 4 heading and tag it. Then, create the first paragraph of the subsection on the line below the theme heading. Then, place the cursor next to the theme heading. Hit the keys “cntrl + alt + enter.” This will create a “style break” so that the Level 4 heading and the normal paragraph do not connect but are formatted correctly on the same line.Grouped findings related to Theme 2.Subtheme 3. Comment by Author: This heading is tagged with APA Style Level 4 heading [3.03]. To differentiate the Level 4 heading from the normal style of the text, write the Level 4 heading and tag it. Then, create the first paragraph of the subsection on the line below the theme heading. Then, place the cursor next to the theme heading. Hit the keys “cntrl + alt + enter.” This will create a “style break” so that the Level 4 heading and the normal paragraph do not connect but are formatted correctly on the same line.Grouped findings related to Theme 2.In a concluding paragraph, provide a synthesis of the evidence studies presented in Theme 2. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each project, as well as the variables, instrumentation, and findings of each project as they relate to each other and use the findings of the studies in the subtheme to build an argument for your project. Discuss what is missing or how the design or methodology could have changed in studies to improve the quality of the project. Discuss inconsistencies or gaps that emerge in the evidence providing opportunity for additional projects. Provide a transition sentence to the next theme. Need at least three themes.Chapter 2 can be particularly challenging with regard to APA format for citations and quotations. Refer to your APA manual frequently to make sure your citations are formatted properly. It is critical that each in-text citation is appropriately listed in the References section.CriterionLearner Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Chairperson Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Comments or FeedbackReview of the LiteratureThis section provides a broad, balanced overview of the existing literature related to the project topic. It identifies themes, trends, and conflicts in methodology, design, and findings. It describes the literature in related topic areas and its relevance to the project topic. It provides an overall analysis of the existing literature examining the contributions of this literature to the field, identifying the conflicts, and relating the themes and results to the project. Citations are provided for all ideas, concepts, and perspectives. The investigator’s personal opinions or perspectives are not included.Chapter 2 needs to be at least 20-25 pages in length. It needs to include a minimum of 50 scholarly sources with 85% from the sources published within the past 5 years. Additional sources do not necessarily need to be from the past 5 years. It should not include any personal perspectives.This section describes each variable in the project discussing the prior evidence that has been done on the variable.This section Discusses the various methodologies and designs that have been used to understand evidence presented on topics related to the project. Uses this information to justify the design.This section argues the appropriateness of the practice improvement project’s instruments, measures, and/or approaches used to collect data.This section discusses topics related to the practice improvement project topic and may include (a) studies relating the variables (quantitative) or exploring related phenomena (qualitative), (b) evidence –based studies on related factors associated with the topic, (c) Relates the literature back to the DPI-project topic and the practice problem. d) studies on the instruments used to collect data, and (e) studies on the broad population for the project. Set of topics discussed in the Review of Literature demonstrates a comprehensive understanding of the broad area in which the topic exists.Each section within the Review of Literature includes an introductory paragraph that explains why the particular topic was explored relative to the practice improvement project topic.Each section within the Review of Literature requires a summary paragraph that (a) compares and contrasts alternative perspectives on the topic, (b) provides a summary of the themes relative to the topic discussed that emerged from the literature, and (c) identifies how themes are relevant to your practice improvement project topic.The types of references that may be used in the literature review include empirical (original research) articles (MUST HAVE) evidence-based research, meta-analysis, systematic reviews, randomized control trials, or seminal works, peer-reviewed or scholarly journal articles, and books that are cutting-edge views on a topic.This section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, and uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, punctuation, and APA format.NOTE: Once the document has been approved by your chairperson and your committee and is ready to submit for AQR review, please remove all of these assessment tables from this documentScore 0 (not present); 1 (unacceptable; needs substantial edits); 2 (present but needs some editing); 3 (publication ready).For a quote within a quote, use a set of single quotation marks. [4.08]. As a rule, if a quote comprises 40 or more words, display this material as a freestanding block quote. Start formal block quotes on a new line. They are indented one inch in from the left margin. The entire block quote is double-spaced. Quotation marks are not used with formal block quotes. The in-text citation is included after the final punctuation mark. [6.03]. Below is an example of a block quote: In an important biography, The First American: The Life and Times of Benjamin Franklin, historian H. W. Brands writes: Comment by Author: Caution! Make sure you do not overuse titles in the literature review. You can use them in certain instances, but do not rely on them to convey content.In February 1731, Franklin became a Freemason. Shortly thereafter, he volunteered to draft the bylaws for the embryonic local chapter, named for St. John the Baptist; upon acceptance of the bylaws, he was elected Warden and subsequently Master of the Lodge. Within three years, he became Grandmaster of all of Pennsylvania’s Masons. Not unforeseeable he—indeed, this was much of the purpose of membership for everyone involved—his fellow Masons sent business Franklin’s way. In 1734 he printed The Constitutions, the first formerly sponsored Masonic book in America; he derived additional [printing] work from his brethren on an unsponsored basis. (Brands, 2000, p. 113)

Summary

This section restates what was written in Chapter 2 and provides supporting citations for key points. It synthesizes the information from the chapter using it to define the “gaps” in or “project needs” from the literature, the theories or models to provide the foundation for the project, the problem statement, the primary clinical question, the methodology, the design, the variables or phenomena, the data collection instruments or sources, and population. It then provides a transition discussion to Chapter 3.Overall, this section should:· Synthesize the information from all of the prior sections in the literature review and use it to define the key strategic points for the project.· Summarize the gaps and needs in the background and introduction and describe how it informs the problem statement.· Identify the theories or models describing how they inform the clinical questions.· Use the literature to justify the design, variables, data collection instruments or sources, and population to be evaluated.· Relates the literature back to the DPI-project topic and the practice problem.· Build a case (argument) for the project in terms of the value of the project and how the clinical questions emerged from the review of literature.· Explain how the current theories, models, and topics related to the project will be advanced through your project.· Summarize key points in Chapter 2 and transition into Chapter 3.This section should help the reader clearly see and understand the relevance and importance of the project to be conducted. The Summary section transitions to Chapter 3 by building a case for the project, in terms of project design and rigor, and it formulates the clinical questions based on the gaps and tensions in the literature. Comment by Author: Use INSERTPage Break to set new page for new chapter. Do not use hard returns to get there.CriterionLearner Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Chairperson Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Comments or FeedbackSummaryThis section restates what was written in Chapter 2 and provides supporting citations for key points. It synthesizes the information from the chapter using it to define the “gaps” in or “evidence –based practice needs” from the literature, the theories or models to provide the foundation for the project, the problem statement, the primary clinical question, the methodology, the design, the variables or phenomena, the data collection instruments or sources, and population. It then provides a transition discussion to Chapter 3.This section synthesizes the information from all of the prior sections in the Review of Literature and uses it to define the key strategic points for the project.This section summarizes the gaps and needs in the background and introduction and describes how it informs the problem statement.This section identifies the theories or models and describes how they inform the clinical questions.This section uses the literature to justify the design, variables or phenomena, data collection instruments or sources, and answer the clinical questions on your selected intervention protocol, clinical setting and patient population.be evaluated.This section builds a case for the project in terms of the value of the project.This section explains how the current theories, models, and topics related to the DPI project will be advanced through your intervention and outcomes.This section summarizes key points in Chapter 2 and transition into Chapter 3.This section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, and uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, punctuation, and APA format.NOTE: Once the document has been approved by your chairperson and your committee and is ready to submit for AQR review, please remove all of these assessment tables from this document.Score 0 (not present); 1 (unacceptable; needs substantial edits); 2 (present but needs some editing); 3 (publication ready).

Chapter 3: Methodology

Chapter 3 documents how the project is conducted in enough detail so that replication by others is possible. The introduction begins with a summary of the project focus and purpose statement to reintroduce the reader to the need for the project. This can be summarized in three or four sentences from Chapter 1. Summarize the clinical questions in narrative format, and then outline the expectations for this chapter.Remember, throughout this chapter depending on where you are in your project, the verb tense must be changed from present tense (proposal) to past tense (DPI Project manuscript). Furthermore, consider will happen during data collection and analysis as it is planned here. Sometimes, the DPI project protocol ends up being modified based on committee, Academic Quality Review (AQR), or Institutional Review Board (IRB) recommendations. After the practice project is complete, make sure this chapter reflects how the project was actually conducted.Criterion Comment by Author: All of the criterion tables must be removed prior to all AQR, IRB, and final submissions.Learner Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Chairperson Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Comments or FeedbackIntroductionThis section includes both a restatement of project focus and purpose statement for the project from Chapter 1, to reintroduce reader to the need for the project and a description of contents of the chapter.A brief introduction to the chapter describes the chapter purpose and how it is organized and summarizes the project focus and problem statement to reintroduce reader to the need for the project.This section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, and uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, punctuation, and APA format.NOTE: Once the document has been approved by your chairperson and your committee and is ready to submit for AQR review, please remove all of these assessment tables from this document.Score 0 (not present); 1 (unacceptable; needs substantial edits); 2 (present but needs some editing); 3 (publication ready).

Statement of the Problem

This section restates the problem for the convenience of the reader. Copy and paste the Statement of the Problem from Chapter 1. Then, edit, blend, and integrate this material into the narrative. Change future tense to past tense for DPI Project manuscripts.CriterionLearner Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Chairperson Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Comments or FeedbackStatement of the Problem:This section restates the Problem Statement from Chapter 1.This section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, and uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, punctuation, and APA format.NOTE: Once the document has been approved by your chairperson and your committee and is ready to submit for AQR review, please remove all of these assessment tables from this document.Score 0 (not present); 1 (unacceptable; needs substantial edits); 2 (present but needs some editing); 3 (publication ready).

Clinical Question

This section restates the clinical question(s) for the project from Chapter 1. The following clinical questions guide this quantitative project:Q1:Q2:It then presents the matching of the variables. This discussion includes the independent variable (intervention or practice change) and the dependent variable (outcome of the DPI) (see Table 1)

Table 1 Characteristics of Variables Comment by Author: This table is not required but does illustrate the different levels of measurement aligned to each type of variable. It is important for the doctoral learner explore the level of measurement of each variable so accurate statistical tests can be selected for analysis.VariableVariable TypeLevel of MeasurementProject Groups (Pre-Intervention & Post Intervention)IndependentNominalRates or events (Outcome)DependentNominalSocio-economic status or categories in orderDependentOrdinalTime, TemperatureDependentIntervalAge, height, Scores of tests (Outcome)DependentRatioNote: An outcome variable can be any of the four levels of measurement. (Creswell & Creswell, 2018).The section also briefly reviews the approaches to collecting the data to answer the clinical questions (see Figure 1).

Figure 1Approaches to Collecting the Data to Answer the Clinical QuestionsBetween-subjects (or between-groups) designs include different people or data in each collection so that each person is only in one group or the other. Within-subjects (or repeated-measures) design include the same person in all collections both before and after the intervention.The section should describe the instrument(s) or data source(s) to collect the data for each variable. It also discusses why the design was selected to be the best approach to answer the clinical question(s).CriterionLearner Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Chairperson Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Comments or FeedbackClinical Question(s)This section restates the clinical questions for the project from Chapter 1. It then explains the variables.This section describes the approaches used to collect the data to answer the clinical questions. For a quantitative project, it describes the instrument(s) or data source(s) to collect the data for each variable.This section discusses why the design was selected to be the best approach to answer the clinical questions.This section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, and uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, punctuation, and APA format.NOTE: Once the document has been approved by your chairperson and your committee and is ready to submit for AQR review, please remove all of these assessment tables from this document.Score 0 (not present); 1 (unacceptable; needs substantial edits); 2 (present but needs some editing); 3 (publication ready).

Project Methodology

This section describes the methodology for the DPI project and explains the rationale for selecting this quantitative methodology. It also describes why this methodology was selected as opposed to the alternative methodologies. (see Table 2) DPI projects are typically quantitative due to the nature of measuring a practice improvement.

Table 2


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