Thermodynamics Fall 2020 Final Project
Due November 30th at 11:59pm – Late assignments are NOT accepted
Purpose: The purpose of this project is to familiarize yourself with the real-life ramifications of the
thermodynamic principles taught in this class. This project requires the manipulation of HOT water,
exposure to steam, and other hot surfaces. Caution is STRONGLY advised and I am not liable for any
injuries that result. If you are uncomfortable with the physical requirements of this project, please
contact me and you will receive an extended problem set and research project instead.
Tools and supplies: You will need to borrow, purchase, or gain access (borrow from a friend) to:
• A digital food/kitchen thermometer with at least 1 decimal point of accuracy (see below)
• A microwave
• A microwave-safe glass container and a piece of FLAT Styrofoam to put over the top
• A liquid measuring device (measuring cups, scale, etc.)
• A timer, stopwatch, or use a timer app on a smartphone
• A plastic spoon (disposable is fine)
• A small towel, a kitchen/oven mitt, or something that protects you from hot objects
• A ruler that can measure mm or 1/16th of an inch
• Water (nothing special, just the wet n’ splashy stuff that comes out of the tap)
Notes in general: Almost everything above can be found at the Dollar Store and/or Save-a-lot. This
project should not cost more than a few dollars. If you didn’t have a thermometer, can’t borrow one,
or split the cost with someone, you’ll have one for cooking! You can do this project in SI or English units.
Note that if you do the calculations in English units, you can report final answers in BTU/hr instead of
kJ/hr where applicable. You will have to use the appropriate tables and convert Watts to BTU/s.
Details about thermometer – It doesn’t not have to be something too special, just a basic XXX.X°C or F
readout such as these seen below. What you may not want to do is use a analog or BBQ thermometer
which is made for very high temperatures. You also do not want to use a medical type thermometer as
those are only calibrated to be accurate near human body temperature.
Part 1 – Experiment Steps (read through first and then do the experiment):
1. Allow the thermometer, glass container, and around 4 cups of water to come to room temp for
at least 20 minutes (just leave everything out, we don’t want cold water from the fridge).
2. Use the thermometer to record the initial air temperature and water temperature (allow several
seconds during each measurement to ensure that a stable reading is achieved).
3. Note down the brand of thermometer that you used. Include the model if you have it or can
read it from the back of the unit.
4. Open the microwave door and look on the edge, side, back, or interior for a model number
a. If you can find it, do a quick web search and determine the Wattage of the microwave
b. If you cannot find it, assume it is 750Watts if it’s a compact model and 1200 Watts if it’s
a large or built-in model
c. In either case, record, at least, the Manufacturer/Brand of the machine and a quick
description of it’s size in addition to the model (if found) and the wattage.
5. In the clear glass microwave-safe container, add exactly 2 cups of room temperature water (left
out earlier) and place in the microwave.
a. Set the microwave for 2 minutes and IMMEDIATELY after the machine beeps that it is
finished, take your Plastic spoon and without holding the container, open the door, stir
briefly, and measure the temperature.
b. When using the thermometer, record the value only once it settles. Ensure the probe
tip of the thermometer is in the water and not touching the walls of the container
c. Note down any observations like bubbles or steam
6. Quickly close the door and microwave for 1 more minute and repeat the process of then
immediately opening the door, stirring with the plastic spoon, and recording the temperature
and observations. (*NOTE!! – be EXTREMELY careful when using microwaves to heat liquids.
There is a phenomenon known as superheated water where the water exceeds the boiling point
but does not actual begin boiling until an external object touches the surface. At that point, it
explodes outward sending scalding hot water all over you. You have been warned!)
Superheated Water Mythbusters (~2mins): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1_OXM4mr_i0
7. Repeat step 6 until you observe VERY strong boiling and stop the microwave if water begins to
spill out. If you do have to stop the microwave, record the time left and use this to determine
the total time the water was heated.
8. Use the time that you calculated above in units of SECONDS and the Wattage of the microwave
to determine the total energy in units of JOULES added to the water. Then calculate the
KILOJOULES of energy added.
9. Convert the volume of 2 cups of water into a MASS in units of KILOGRAMS of water.
10. Use the H2O SI Saturated Tables in your book to determine the ΔU of the water. Remember,
that this is basically m(μ2 – μ1) . Since the water is not really boiling anymore even though it is
hot, is it now a subcooled liquid? What is the pressure around the water? How could you find
out? Does the mass change? Did you lose a lot of water when it boiled over?
11. Compare the kJ of energy calculated in step 10 to the kJ of energy put into the water calculated
in step 8. Is one more than the other? By how much? Why is there a difference? Are there any
losses? Is this a well-insulated system?
Part 2 – Experiment Steps (can take place right after the previous experiment with the same water):
1. Ensure that you still have 2 cups of water in your glass container
2. Either from the experiment Part 1 or by heating a new batch, raise the 2 cups of water up to
a temp of at LEAST 200°F or 94°C.
3. Carefully and with a towel or thick glove, relocate the glass container from the microwave
and place on a safe surface such as a wood cutting board, countertop, or other area which
will not be damaged by the heat. Place the small piece of flat Styrofoam over the top of the
glass container to reduce heat transfer out the top.
4. Using your plastic spoon, once every 60 seconds, briefly uncover the Styrofoam, stir, and
record the temperature with your thermometer. It’s best to leave a running timer on your
phone for this and just check if for a total of 20 + (last digit of your U#) minutes. Example, if
your USF ID# is U12345678, you would do this for 28 minutes. It’s also best to leave the
thermometer in the water. You can poke it through the Styrofoam to keep it stable, just
ensure the probe tip is in the water and not touching the walls of the container.
5. Open your favorite plotting software (Excel is best, but Google Sheets or any other graphing
capable software will do). Enter all the temperatures in a column and plot in a line graph.
6. What was the final Temperature? How much heat in kJ was lost as the water cooled?
(Remember, you must use the table to correlate the temperature to an internal energy.
Even though the system is not really closed, we can think of it as so due to the fact that
nothing is flowing and the mass is staying relatively constant.) What is the rate of heat
transfer in kJ/hr? Is the heat flowing in or out of the system? What is the sign of the heat
transfer that you expect?
7. Now you will calculate the thermal insulating properties of the glass. This topic was never
covered in class, but it’s quite simple to do:
× 𝐴 × ∆𝑇 Is the equation that governs heat loss. Where
• Q/t (or accurately ΔQ/Δt), is the total heat loss (calculated in the above step in units
of kJ/hr *Be careful with the conversion from seconds to hours),
• k/d is the thermal conductivity divided by the thickness of the glass and has units of
• A is the area of the heat loss, and
• T or delta T is the change in temp from start to finish.
8. Using your ruler, look at the level that the water reached and make a mark on the glass
container at this level. Carefully pour out the hot water and allow the container to cool.
Use the ruler to roughly estimate the area of the glass that water was in contact with.
9. Use the ruler to roughly estimate the thickness of the glass container.
10. Convert the two values above into units of m2 and m, respectively. (watch area conversions)
11. Calculate the thermal conductivity of glass. (Note that it will often be expressed in W/m·K,
and remember that a W is J/s. Note we calculated kJ/hr, not J/s. Also note, the size of a
degree °C is the same as a K so you don’t have to convert anything there.)
12. Look up the real value of the thermal conductivity of glass. Is your number your calculated
in step 11 close? What do you think accounted for the differences or losses?
Experiments are done, now what?
Write the above findings up in a nice report. Answer ALL the questions asked above and perform and
report all the calculations. Describe what you thought and what you learned. Be sure to throw in some
cell phone pictures of the setup you ended up with. There is no minimum or maximum length for this
report. Why? In life, in industry, there is often little guidance as to exactly “what the boss wants.” You
need to use your intuition to figure it out. Do remember that I’m busy and why while I love details, I
don’t like too much unnecessary explanation. Telling me about what your cat ate for breakfast the
morning you did this experiment is probably not going to impress me. Also unimpressive are massive
errors in calculation, poor writing, or leaving out important questions or information. The information
should be easy to read… not just written into a large paragraph but clearly in tables or arranged neatly.
There should ideally be sections in your report. You figure out the rest… Upload the results by the due
date listed all the way at the top and you’re good to go. Have fun, be safe, and learn something!
College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Deadline: (end of week 12) 21 /11/ 2020 @ 23:59
|Course Name: Accounting Research & Practice||Student’s Name:|
|Course Code: ACCT 403||Student’s ID Number:|
|Academic Year: 1441/1442 H|
For Instructor’s Use only
|Students’ Grade: …… /5||Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low|
nstructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY
Assignment Question(s): (Marks. 5)
Q1. Fundamental questions for a survey research need to be answered at the design stage are:
Develop an example of your own on Survey research by answering to all the above questions for a quality design.(2 Marks)
Q2. What do you understand by Archival Research? Please visit SDL and briefly bring out at least 5 historical events available in the Archives and draw your conclusion on archival research. (1 Mark)
Q3. American Psychological Association (APA) and Modern Language Association (MLA) are the two common styles of writing your research work.
Explore from website the two methods and explain why it is important to maintain these formats (1 Mark)
Q4. What are the essential Ethical guidelines that the researcher needs? (1 Mark)
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