Studio case- 2 pages- Answer the following question
-USE Signavio and create the as is state for The Studio•Document any assumptions necessary•Provide 2 BVA , 2 VA and 2 NVA steps (and why)•Identify 2 wastes and explain them•Word document with screen shots to convey understanding
1 Name:__________________ GEOL 194 Environmental Geology Homework Volcano Analysis & Risk
Background As Regional manager for Denyallclaims Insurance Company in the greater Bridgewater area, the executives at the main office assign you the following task. A company is requesting insurance coverage on a multi-million dollar ski resort they are planning to build in a South American country bordering on the Pacific Ocean. The ski resort will be built at the base of a conical mountain peak where a valley cut into the side of the mountain empties onto a broad flat plain. You are asked to evaluate the risk of building in this locality. Since you suspect that the mountain is a stratovolcano, you decide to go check it out for yourself. Upon arrival at the site, you find that there are few rocks or deposits exposed on the valley floor that might give you a hint as to what has been happening at this mountain in the recent past. There are rumors among the people living nearby that the mountain has erupted a couple of times in the past few hundred years, but this is nothing to worry about, as it has been a long time since the volcano erupted and the locals consider it to be an extinct volcano. Because you have taken a course on natural disasters, you realize that relying on local rumors may cost you your job, your luxurious house, and maybe even your spouse, you decide to acquire more information. You find a local geological consulting firm that is capable of drilling a hole 75 meters deep into the valley floor. The company will take core samples of the entire drill hole, and, if they encounter any charcoal within the samples, provide you with 14C radiometric age dates (in years) of any charcoal they find. When finished, they provide you with a chart, shown on the next page, which shows the depth within the drill hole, a description of the deposits found in the drill hole, and the 14C age of the charcoal they found in the layers (shown as numbers within the layers). Because a 14C age date on charcoal is the date when the original tree or twig died due to exposure to hot volcanic material, it gives a fairly precise date on the eruption which caused the formation of the charcoal. The drill hole data gives a fairly complete picture of the events that have occurred at this particular locality. Other eruptions may have occurred, but they did not leave deposits in this valley. From your text and lecture notes you should have learned that rhyolitic pyroclastic flow deposits result from Plinian and Pelean eruptions (very explosive), and scoria fall deposits and basalt lava flows result from Strombolian eruptions (less explosive). Mud flows can form during an eruption or during periods of heavy rains not associated with any eruptions years later. Viscosity and gas content of magmas are the two properties most responsible for explosive volcanic eruptions and both of these properties generally increase with increasing SiO2 content of the magma. Basalt magmas are low in SiO2 whereas rhyolite magmas are high in SiO2. From this information, you want to answer the following questions for your report to corporate headquarters.
3 1) Describe in general how the history of the volcano, as determined in this particular valley, has changed through time as revealed by the deposits found with depth in the drill hole. In particular note how the SiO2 content of the magmas has changed with time and whether or not this is reflected in the explosivity of the eruptions as revealed by the deposits. 2) Note that the drill hole data shows two distinct periods of eruptive style of the volcano as exhibited by the deposits. How would you characterize these different periods and when did the change occur? 3) The average eruption rate, R, (total years/ number of eruptions) can be obtained by dividing the total number of years of record by the number of eruptions. What is the average eruption rate for the sequence within the top 32 meters represented by the layers in the drill hole? (Note that in counting eruptions, it is likely that two deposits of different type that have the same 14C age date, probably represent a single eruption. 4) The average eruption frequency or probability that an eruption will occur in any given year is determined by using the recurrence interval and the relation that frequency is equal to ( 1
𝑅 )*100. Determine the eruption frequency for the sequence within the same top 32 meters represented by the layers in the drill hole. 5) What are the three most likely volcanic hazards expected in this valley? 6) Based on the above information what can you tell the Denyallclaims corporate headquarters about the risk of building a ski resort at this locality and whether or not they should insure this ski resort? Is there any chance of an eruption?
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