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Factors Influencing Tourism Marketing Strategies in Jordanian Five-star Hotels
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Factors Influencing Tourism Marketing Strategies in Jordanian Five-star Hotels
Tourism is one of the robust and highly dynamic sectors that entails individuals engaging in varying leisure activities, such as traveling and living in areas outside the ordinary and usual environment. According to Goodall and Ashworth (2013), tourism promotes the growth and the success of global -economies, especially the host destination, by boosting the growth of revenue in an economy. Tourism and hospitality create jobs in an economy, ranging from hotels and accommodation staff, drivers, and airlines, forming one of the economic pillars of most global nations. Besides, tourism and economy culminate in developing the infrastructures in a country while augmenting cultural exchange between the locals and the foreigners. The insight of marketing in tourism and hospitality management in the recent past has become highly apparent with the advent and increased use of the technology. Kayumovich and Kamalovna (2019) noted that technological advancement and the increased ability of people to engage in marketing using social media had promoted growth and marketing in the tourism and hospitality sector. The advancing time has also prompted the development of varying attributes that has increased the influence of strategic planning with different institutions embracing marketing strategy to communicate and promote their brand. In Jordan, tourism has grown to become one of the most significant sectors with numerous tourist destinations, such as the dead sea areas, hiking Aqaba’s coral reefs, among other goals. The technological advancement has promoted the growth and enhancement of marketing strategies in tourism and hospitality in Jordan, forming a significant milestone in the marketing tourism sector in the country. The embraced technological marketing strategies have prompted the growth of awareness and popularity of the Jordanian five-star hotels and facilities, augmenting their appellant and increased comprehension about their services and quality delivered to the tourist visiting the nations.
Ibrahim, Al-Hrout, Alsardia, and Ragab (2018) noted that in most business ventures, different factors influence a business’s achievement. The stiff competition and turbulence in the business world have compelled hospitality companies to try their best to gratify clients for repeated business. Customers are impacting the direction and pace of underlying changes in the hospitality industry and transforming the demand profiles of tourists making the customer satisfaction process even more complex and challenging. Notably, the clients are increasingly becoming knowledgeable and sophisticated in their utilization of technology to select, research, and purchase lodging. Clients resist a chain mentality, thereby creating new opportunities for the hospitality industry to improve their services. Pirnar, Icoz, and Icoz (2010) indicated that the primary challenge for tourism establishment’s marketing strategies lies in the rapidly increasing diversification of tastes, interests, and demands of tourists. Hence, five-star restaurants are becoming increasingly innovative and developing their market to provide tailored experiences that meet the changing beliefs and attitudes of tourists.
Wamalwa (2014) provides a brief description of the various marketing strategies affecting tourism marketing in five-star hotels. According to Wamalwa (2014), understanding the different theories offers readers an understanding of the multiple factors affecting tourism marketing.
According to Wamalwa (2014), marketing is significantly evolving, thereby mandating businesses to remain innovative and remain competitive. The 4Ps are among the marketing mix theory that explains how marketers utilize the different marketing mix to determine the brand or product offering. In the 1970s, business researchers used the 4Ps, which denoted price, promotion, place, and product. Later, marketers realized the need to include three more 3Ps: physical evidence, processes, and people, resulting in 7Ps. According to the marketing mix theory, price is crucial in determining the value of services or products sold. Price is determined by the discovery of how clients perceive the value of a given product. Getting or offering the right service at the right place is a crucial distribution system that attracts tourists. Thus, the choice or service or product distribution is a primary determinant of how customers perceive and use a hotel’s services. Promotion involves communicating with clients. The promotion offers clients with valuable information about a restaurant, which, in turn, attracts potential clients. Thus, according to the marketing mix theory, creativity in advertising is vital in attracting customers to five-star hotels. It provides adequate information required by clients, such as price, food, services, and other recreational activities like gym and spar.
According to Wamalwa (2014), service businesses like the hospitality industry that have direct contact with clients also appear to adopt client-oriented marketing ideas. The author theorizes service marketing and how marketing development influences clients’ purchasing efforts. Customers engage in relational marketing conduct because of social influences, personal influences, and institutional factors. Hence, the willingness of the client to buy services relies on the association between markets and customers.
Marketing strategies refer to marketing logic in which an organization anticipates establishing client value and attain profitable customer association (Kotler 2010). Notably, Monsalve (2014) noted that comprehending the strategic situation in a company is a crucial factor in creating a marketing strategy.
Service quality refers to the overall perception by clients concerning relative inferiority or superiority, client anticipation, intangible activities, and quality control (Ibrahim et al., 2018; Samy 2016). Service quality also denotes to meeting customers’ needs and establishing value for customers. In the same line, service quality identifies five concepts: meeting and fulfilling clients’ expectations (AL-Rousan, Mohamed, & Fernando 2011). The intangible factors include materials: Personnel, and physical facilities. The reliability in service quality refers to appropriate performance and dependability, while the responsiveness dimension involves the willingness to assist clients and the promptness of their services. Accordingly, assurance entails responding to customers with the utmost courtesy and being knowledgeable while empathy is individualized attention and care to clients. Managers in the tourism and hospitality industry focus on improving their services and providing high levels of satisfaction, hoping that their services and efforts will attract clients. In this case, loyal clients often ten to return to the destination and recommend the facility to other potential customers.
However, it is worth indicating that failure to provide service quality affects tourism marketing resulting in severe business (Haghkhah, Nosratpour, Ebrahimpour, & Hamid, 2011). One of the service quality factors affecting tourism marketing in five-star restaurants in Jordan is the destination. Geographical location refers to where the event occurs, and thus ti should be highly accessible. Some of the five-star restaurants are highly accessible, such as Four Seasons Hotel Amman, located between the upscale Sweifeih neighborhood and the Shmeisani financial district and atop the city’s highest hill. The hotel is 2km from Barak Mall and only 6km from King Abdullah I Mosque. Therefore, the strategic location of this five star hotel makes it attractive to potential customers who might consider going to the mosque for prayers. Accordingly, a hotel’s location should be accessible for customers to reach their destination, such as Airport, bus, or train. The location of a hotel is also a significant source of gratification or dissatisfaction for customers. The proximity from the five-star hotel to the sporting venue is a vital factor determining how potential customers decide to use hotels’ services (Haghkhah et al. 2011). For instance, five-star hotels located within walking distance to social amenities are sufficient for attracting customers. Guests also assess the ease of accessing the train station, Airport, or bus terminals. Another factor in determining tourism marketing is the accommodation quality. The quality of accommodation influences visitors’ ability to select, assess, and determine the hotel’s surroundings and value before deciding to stay in such an accommodation.
The present size of the hospitality industry is complex and challenging to quantify; however, it is depicted by significant growth in recent years due to increased traveling and globalization. Currently, the tourism and hospitality industry has become the most competitive sector across the globe. As a result, branding is one of the strategic tools used in tourism marketing. Branding refers to the process of creating symbols, names, signs to remain competitive, and unique, as well as establishing long-term commitment focused on making sure the Jordanian five-star hotels have a thriving market image and growth. Strong brands and positioning aim at market segmentation and differentiating products, thereby creating customer loyalty, which culminates in customer returns and recommendations. Thus, with the growth of the service sector, services have different features like intangibility, perishability inseparability, and variability. As a result, branding and positioning have become a crucial part of Jordanian five-star marketing strategies to attract more customers—five-star hotels on branding through excellent services, pricing, communication, and skilled employees. Accordingly, positioning approaches utilized by Jordanian five-star hotels is a proactive and deliberate procedure of defining, altering, and monitoring customers’ perception of the hotel offerings. The hotel managers are positioning their restaurants to create a competitive advantage and remain competitive in the global markets (Langvinienė & Daunoravičiūtė 2015). Five-star hotels located in Jordan could position their hotels using product positioning, which entails placing a company based on location as a distinct feature. Five-star hotels can position themselves in a strategic place, with a particular climate and setting. The location of a five-star hotel as a product should provide additional value for clients compared to competitors.
Noteworthy, five-star hotels at Jordan can use client positioning strategies to market their services. In a competitive business arena, clients should not wait to complaint about services rendered to them. Instead, organization should focus on making sure customers receive the value for their money by offering excellent services. Thus, Jordanian five-star hotels can position themselves by delivering service quality to their clients. Customer positioning is a competitive strategic for differentiating a five-star hotel from otherm. Increasing competition in a monopolistic market has provided customers with an opportunity to shift from one hotel to other in search of services that meets their value for money (Maseviciute, Gueorguieva, & Georgiev 2015). Accordingly, customers are having different preferences and tastes, there requiring hotels to strategies ways in which they can position themselves for competitive advantages therefore, ensuring that a hotel has excellent services and fulfilling services a crucial tourism marketing strategy that attracts clients.
Gnanapala (2014) noted that facilities are crucial in determining tourism marketing in a five-star hotel. According to Gnanapala (2014), marketing tactics often focus on facilities and infrastructures as they are two essential determinants of tourism comfort and satisfaction. The three main structures in facilities include the superstructures, which encompasses tour operators, transport, hotels, and attractions. In this case, the customer prefers staying in five-star hotels offering superstructures like tour operation and good hotel services. The next structure includes sports facilities, destinations, and recreational facilities. Customers traveling in Jordan often look for five-star hotels offering such services, including nightlife, mailing services, and shop. Thus, locating a hotel in a strategic position with attractive sights and malls provides a competitive advantage in guest attraction.
It is worth indicating that political stability is a crucial determinant of tourism marketing in Jordan and any other nation across the globe. Customers often prefer vising and staying in five-star hotels with adequate security. Accordingly, the economic status is also vital in ensuring that guest visit a nation because services are offered at affordable prices and customers are able to buy products as relics on their home.
The advent of technology has provided a significant avenue for marketing products and services used by most global institutions today, especially the use of social media to reach out to existing and potential consumers. Minazzi (2015) noted that the social media marketing technique is one of the least exploited strategies but significantly influences how companies in the tourism and hospitality sectors. Nonetheless, the continuous use of social media platforms globally has prompted numerous institutions to embrace the media to promote their businesses. For instance, most institutions in the tourism sector have embraced social media marketing, which includes the creation of social media corporate profiles that provides the services rendered and the corresponding prices associated with a selected product or service. The Jordanian five stars hotels in the recent past have continued to embrace the social media technology in marketing their products and services offered, augmenting the ability to promote their brand globally, enhancing the ability to increase the number of visitors to the hotels. In 2019, Jordan, as a tourist destination, recorded more than 1 million tourists visiting the country ( ANBA 2020). Thus, five-star Jordanian hotels in the country could use the opportunity to market their service using technology, thereby exploiting the enormous potential offered by the tourism sector in the nation.
In marketing the Jordanian five-star hotels, value proposition forms one of the essential marketing strategies that would influence the promotion of the hotel in the highly dynamic tourism sector. According to Osterwalder, Pigneur, Bernarda, and Smith (2014), value proposition entails the value for an institution, whereby a company promises the consumers to deliver excellent services and products, forming the primary reason why the customers should procure an item from the company as opposed to the competitors. Value proposition as a factor influencing the marketing strategy in Jordanian five-star hotels increased product and service differentiation from the competitors in the same marketplace. Besides, the strategic marketing aspect in Jordanian five-star hotels would enhance the creation and improvement of the quantity and the quality of the prospective leads from foreign tourists visiting different Jordan tourist destinations. Besides, embracing value proposition in marketing the Jordanian five-star hotels would enhance the ability of the hotels to command significant market shares on diverse target markets, while improving the operation efficiency.
Consistency of products and services offered by the five-star Jordanian hotels forms another effective marketing strategy that would influence a positive outcome for the tourism and hospitality institutions. According to Sedmak and Kociper (2017), in the tourism sector, product and services consistency forms a significant attribute that enhances the promotion of delivered services by the tourism and hospitality sector. In this case, Jordanian five-star hotels could use product and service consistency to augment their promotion strategy in the robust sectors enhanced by the numerous tourist destinations that attract local and international tourists. Notably, product and services consistency enhances the ability to promote brand awareness, with more people likely to seek services from the hotels that deliver consistently high-quality services to the consumers. In the process, the existing consumers are likely to recommend the hotels to potential customers, promoting the growth of revenues and corresponding long-term sustainability in the marketplace.
In marketing strategy, pricing form one of the vital components of the marketing mix that involves taking account of a selected segment and the ability to market part to pay a stipulated/determined price for selected products or services. Hung, Shang, and Wang (2010) noted that pricing forms a vital component in marketing hotels and other services offered in the tourism and hospitality industry. In this case, the Jordanian five-star hotels would embrace the pricing marketing strategy in promoting their brand both locally and internationally due to a significant influence that prices have on consumers. Notably, due to the global economic state, most people are becoming price sensitive, hence the need for the hotel business to devise pricing strategies favorable to consumers in the different market segments. Besides, the pricing strategy would aid the hotels to increase their level of sustainability, whereby based on the services and products rendered, the hotel would be in a position to set lower prices for varying services and products. The costs would increase the number of consumers and the subsequent revenue generated by five-star hotels.
Future research should identify how hotels in the Jordanian hospitality industry can use positioning strategy to determine what works best for individual hotels. Arguably, five-star hotels at Jordan could establish positioning strategies utilizing a positioning basis. As a result, future research should focus on how hotels can use their capabilities and resources to meet the interests of their customers. Given that positioning strategies vary from one sector to another and from one company to the other, it is crucial to determine a common ground that managers can use, such as pricing, positioning by clients, and by attributes. The process would help determine how five-star hotels can manipulate these factors to provide competitive advantages to Jordanian five-star hotels. Besides, from the literature review, it is apparent that the use of technology is highly underutilized in marketing the Jordanian five-star hotels revealing a significant marketing gap that would have an imperative influence on the businesses. In sectors that have embraced social media, technology in marketing depicts an increasing level of growth and brand promotion to consumers forming a significant aspect of marketing in the modern business environment. Therefore, it is recommended that future marketing research concerning Jordanian five-star hotels should focus more on evaluating the impact of using social media marketing in the tourism industry, particularly in the hotel and hospitality management institutions. The research would help in providing needed insights into the modern marketing strategy and the suitability in promoting the business in the tourism and hospitality sector.
Marketing strategies refer to marketing logic in which an organization anticipates establishing client value and attain profitable customer association. The various factors influencing marketing in Jordanian five-star hotels include service quality, which refers to clients’ overall perception concerning relative inferiority or superiority, client anticipation, intangible activities, and quality control. The intangible factors include materials: personnel, and physical facilities. The reliability in service quality refers to appropriate performance and dependability, while the responsiveness dimension involves the willingness to assist clients and the promptness of their services. Accordingly, assurance entails responding to customers with the utmost courtesy and being knowledgeable while empathy is individualized attention and care to clients. Branding and positioning have become a crucial part of Jordanian five-star marketing strategies to attract more customers. Thus, Jordanian five-star hotels can use customer positioning and product positioning for marketing its services. Other factors include innovation and technology, pricing, value proposition, and facilities.
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