Flow Visualization around an Aerofoil

Flow Visualization around an Aerofoil
Hello I need someone to do my fluids Flow Mechanics Lab. I have attached all the information needed fo the lab below.

Final Project for the Fluids lab It is a group project. You need to submit a written proposal (report) in the end. Your proposed ideas are critical. The experiment you design is a preliminary experiment to convince the reviewers that there are grounds to what you proposed and you are capable to perform the work, eventually convince the reviewers to fund your project. The format of this proposal is based on research proposals with simplifications. National Science Foundation, when they collect proposals from research groups, ask the proposer to explain why his/her proposed research deserves tax money. Companies are similar, except that they put much more emphasis on short-term applications than on long-term intellectual merit. In proposals, we often put equal weight on “intellectual merit” and “broader impact”. Here we focus on the broader impact so you need to explain why your project is meaningful.
• If your project does not satisfy “intellectual merit” (e.g., a minor modification of preexisting project), your project will be meaningful if the outcome from your project is potentially useful for some practical purpose. NSF call this criterion “Broader Impact”
In your final proposal, please include the following sections:
A. Project description.
B. Introduction.
C. Broader impact (practical purpose).
D. Preliminary experiment design.
E. References In the project description, give the reviewer a general idea about what you plan to do, how and why. In the introduction, give the background information about what has been done, what exactly you are proposing, and a plan to complete the project. In the broader impact, emphasize the practical advantages this project will bring. A proposed preliminary experiment is the only experiment you will design for this proposal. It could be simple as long as it fits in the story of proposed work. For example, you are proposing an innovated procedure to design effective pipe systems for new buildings particularly for a mixed use of office and lab spaces. With the new design procedure, it is faster to create an effective energy-saving pipe system for different buildings. To create such a design procedure, you need funding to complete these tasks: survey the specific requirements, design the procedure (simulation and experiments), testing, and deploy the new procedure. Now you need to write a proposal about this and asking for funding to support your work. To secure the funding with a better chance, you need to design/perform a preliminary experiment. You choose to use the friction experimental apparatus and design a friction experiment to demonstrate how pipe configuration could affect the energy consumption which can help design an energy-saving pipe system.
In the section of preliminary experiment design, please include:
(i) Description of Experimental design
(ii) Proposed experiment procedure
(iii) Predicted experimental results
(iv) Perform analysis based on predicted experimental results
(v) Conclusion
No need for error analysis.
It is your responsibility to fit the experimental design into the proposal. After you read this document, you need to do the followings:
1. Check out the list of instruments we have in the lab in the last page of this document.
2. Please choose an instrument in the Fluids lab you propose to use in your designed experiment. You may pick the same instrument you used before but your proposed
experiment needs to be different from the previous experiment you performed. 3. Please research the experiments from the lab manual could be performed with your choice of the instrument. 4. Work on the proposal. To get predicted experimental results, please perform analysis with the predicted experimental results (you may find example results in the lab manual). If example results are not found, you will list all equations and theories clearly and create your own data based on researching relative systems to use for the analysis. 5. Submit final report through Elearning by 5 pm on Nov 13th. Thank you all!
P.S. No alcohol no weapons involved in the experimental design.
If you have trouble to come up a proposal, you should pick an instrument interests you the
most in the lab first to design the experiment, then work on the proposal based on your
experimental design, as every instrument has its unique meaning in understanding the
fundamentals of the fluids. Here is a list of instruments we have in the lab in addition to those six equipment used in our regular experiments. 1. EduPIV systems: https://www.dantecdynamics.com/edupiv-educational-piv-system 2. H19 Pelton-Turbine: https://www.tecquipment.com/pelton-turbine 3. H40 Flowmeter calibration: https://www.tecquipment.com/flow-meter-calibration 4. H5 Venturi Meter (Bernoulli’s Theorem) Apparatus:
https://www.tecquipment.com/venturi-meter 5. H9 Hele-Shaw apparatus: https://www.tecquipment.com/hele-shaw-apparatus 6. H408 Fluid Friction Apparatus: https://www.tecquipment.com/fluid-friction-apparatus 7. HM 150.07 Bernoulli’s principle (similar to H5): https://www.gunt.de/en/products/fluidmechanics/physical-principles/principles-of-hydrodynamics/bernoulli-sprinciple/070.15007/hm150-07/glct-1:pa-148:ca-778:pr-554 8. HM 150.10 Visualization of streamlines (similar to H9):
https://www.gunt.de/en/products/fluid-mechanics/flow-around-bodies/streamlinesand-flow-fields/visualisation-of-streamlines/070.15010/hm150-10/glct-1:pa-148:ca-
785:pr-557 9. HM 150.29 Energy losses in piping elements: https://www.gunt.de/en/products/fluidmechanics/steady-flow/flow-in-pipe-systems/energy-losses-in-pipingelements/070.15029/hm150-29/glct-1:pa-148:ca-152:pr-569 10. HM 135 Determination of the settling velocity: https://www.gunt.de/en/products/fluidmechanics/physical-principles/properties-of-fluids/determination-of-the-settlingvelocity/070.13500/hm135/glct-1:pa-148:ca-776:pr-540

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Flow Visualization around an Aerofoil
– The HM150.10 Visualization of Streamlines
UTD Mechanical Engineering
Fluids Lab (MECH 3115)
Dr. Hui Ouyang
How to?
To complete your report, you need to:
• Read this presentation
– 1. Experiment procedure.
– 2. Review fluids equations/dynamics for data analysis.
• Complete the assessment about this experiment.
• Perform the experiments and record data
• Perform data analysis
• Perform a discussion about your results/findings
• Assemble your work and complete the report
Caution: Never start the experiment unless your TA or the
professor stands beside your group and tell you to start.
Outline
• Introduction
• Experimental instruments/apparatus
• Experimental procedure
• Data collection
• Data analysis
• Results and discussion
Introduction to Streamlines
• Streamlines are paths traced by massless particles moving
along the flow of a particle.
• Velocity of the flow is always tangent to every point on the
streamline.
• There is no normal component of velocity along the
streamline, hence mass cannot cross a streamline.
• A three-dimensional streamline is called a stream tube.
• Bernoulli’s equation can be used along a streamline to relate pressure
and velocity,
Steady flow; Adiabatic; Incompressible; Along a streamline; no friction
𝑝1
𝜌𝑔
+
2𝑉1
2𝑔 + 𝑧1 =
𝑝2
𝜌𝑔
+
2𝑉2
2𝑔 + 𝑧2
p: static pressure
𝜌: fluid density
g: gravitation acceleration
𝑉: mean velocity
z: elevation
Bernoulli Theorem
𝑝
𝜌𝑔
= hydrostatic head;
𝑉2
2𝑔 = Kinetic Head 𝑉 is the mean velocity
𝑧 = Potential Head
Experiment apparatus
Cautions:
• Watch out for
water spills.
Experiment apparatus
Experimental Procedure
1. Turn on the pump on HM150
2. Bleed the hoses and valves
• Open the valves on HM150.10 gradually making sure that there is no overflow of
water.
• Once all the air bubbles are removed close all the valves except for the inlet valve.
3. Insert the model of airfoil and firmly press it onto the plastic.
4. Place the glass plate on the seal slowly making sure that there are no air bubbles
trapped, adding a drop of detergent helps to avoid air bubbles.
5. Open valve 2 on the ink tank and now streamlines can be visualized.
6. Change the angle of attack of the airfoil to desired angle and repeat the procedure.
Data Collection
• Click pictures of the flow as shown below,
Results and discussion
• Discussion of the data
• Discuss the flow w.r.t what you observe regarding velocity of
the flow, turbulence, flow separation.
• If the distance between the streamlines are smaller it means,
velocity is higher around that region.
• Explain the phenomenon of lift from the flow visualization.
• Design of airfoil w.r.t sources and sinks could be explained.
The end.

 

Experiment Instructions
HM 150.10 Visualisation of streamlines
HM 150.10 VISUALISATION OF STREAMLINES
i
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 11/2017
This manual must be kept by the unit.
Before operating the unit:
– Read this manual.
– All participants must be instructed on
handling of the unit and, where appropriate,
on the necessary safety precautions.
Version 0.1 Subject to technical alterations
Experiment Instructions
Last modification by: Dipl.-Geogr. Uta Linke
HM 150.10 VISUALISATION OF STREAMLINES
ii
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 11/2017
Table of Contents
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 Safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.1 Intended use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.2 Structure of safety instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.3 Safety instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.4 Ambient conditions for the operating and storage location . . . . . . . . . 4
3 Description of the device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1 Design of the device and operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2 Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.3 Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3.1 Setting up and connecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3.2 Bleeding and fitting the glass plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3.3 Filling with ink and injecting ink. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.4 Care and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4 Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.1 Objective of the experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.2 Conducting the experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.3 Results of the experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.3.1 Flow around bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.3.2 Sources and sinks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.1 Technical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.2 List of abbreviations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.3 List of formula symbols and units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
HM 150.10 VISUALISATION OF STREAMLINES
1 Introduction 1
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 11/2017
1 Introduction
The HM 150.10 device is used to display streamlines in the case of flow around drag bodies. The
shape and size of the device are adapted to the
HM 150 base module; however, it can also be
operated as a stand-alone device.
The device uses water as the flowing medium.
A contrast agent (ink) is injected into a flow chamber through fine nozzles. The flow chamber is
covered by a glass plate to allow ideal observation
conditions.
Different drag bodies, included with the device,
can be placed in the flow chamber.
Furthermore, four additional holes in the vortex
chamber make it possible to simulate and show
flow sources and flow sinks.
Learning objectives are
• Visualisation of streamlines in
– flow around drag bodies
– flow through changes in cross-section
• Influence of sources and sinks
HM 150.10 VISUALISATION OF STREAMLINES
2 Safety 2
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 11/2017
2 Safety
2.1 Intended use
The unit is to be used only for teaching purposes.
2.2 Structure of safety instructions
The signal words DANGER, WARNING or
CAUTION indicate the probability and potential
severity of injury.
An additional symbol indicates the nature of the
hazard or a required action.
Signal word Explanation
Indicates a situation which, if not avoided, will result in
death or serious injury.
Indicates a situation which, if not avoided, may result in
death or serious injury.
Indicates a situation which, if not avoided, may result in
minor or moderately serious injury.
NOTICE
Indicates a situation which may result in damage to
equipment, or provides instructions on operation of
the equipment.
DANGER
WARNING
CAUTION
HM 150.10 VISUALISATION OF STREAMLINES
2 Safety 3
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 11/2017
2.3 Safety instructions
CAUTION
Risk of injury if the glass plate is damaged.
Risk of cutting injuries to the hands.
• If the glass plate is damaged:
Do not operate the device.
WARNING
Water may leak on the floor during operation.
Risk of slipping.
• Only operate the device with the standpipe fitted.
• Immediately wipe water off the floor.
Symbol Explanation
Risk of hand injuries
Risk of slipping
Note
HM 150.10 VISUALISATION OF STREAMLINES
2 Safety 4
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 11/2017
NOTICE
The pump of the HM 150 base module can be
damaged by dry running or if it draws in objects.
Before switching on the pump:
• Remove all loose objects (screws, tools, etc.)
from the device.
• Ensure that the water tank is filled with water.
2.4 Ambient conditions for the operating and storage location
• Enclosed space.
• Free from dirt and humidity.
• Level and fixed surface.
• Frost-free.
HM 150.10 VISUALISATION OF STREAMLINES
3 Description of the device 5
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 11/2017
3 Description of the device
3.1 Design of the device and operation
Fig. 3.1 HM 150.10
1 Nozzle for water drainage 7 Ink tank
2 Carrying handle 8 Injection holes for ink
3 Fastener for glass plate 9 Glass plate
4 Standpipe 10 Flow chamber
5 Nozzle for water inlet 11 Drain valves for flow chamber
6 Inlet valves for flow chamber
2
2
5 1
7 9
10
6 3
11
8
4
HM 150.10 VISUALISATION OF STREAMLINES
3 Description of the device 6
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 11/2017
A stream of water flows through the flow chamber.
In Fig. 3.2 the direction of flow is from left to right.
The quantity of water flowing through the flow
chamber is adjusted by inlet valve a. A standpipe
is included so that the pump does not exert the full
water pressure.
On the left-hand side, the flow chamber has 15
interconnected injection holes, through which the
contrast agent can be injected. Valve 2 regulates
Fig. 3.2 View from above
Valve 2 Valve 1 Inlet valves Standpipe
Valve 3 Drain valves
c e
b d
HM 150.10 VISUALISATION OF STREAMLINES
3 Description of the device 7
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 11/2017
the ink flow. Valve 3 distributes the ink evenly over
the entire width of the vortex chamber.
The injection holes can be flushed by switching
the hose from valve 2 to valve 1.
The inlet valves b to e regulate the inflow of water
through the additional holes (flow sources). The
drain valves b to e adjust the drainage accordingly
(flow sinks).
HM 150.10 VISUALISATION OF STREAMLINES
3 Description of the device 8
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 11/2017
3.2 Models
The models provided are shown in Fig. 3.3.
You can cut your own models out of the rubber
material provided and examine them in the flow
chamber.
Fig. 3.3 Models
Droplet Triangle Square
Car Hemispheres Triangles for change in
cross-section
Streamlined body Aerofoil
HM 150.10 VISUALISATION OF STREAMLINES
3 Description of the device 9
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 11/2017
3.3 Operation
3.3.1 Setting up and connecting
1. Place the HM 150.10 device on the edge of
the HM 150 base module.
2. Connect the water supply by connecting
HM 150 and the water inlet nozzle to
HM 150.10 with a hose.
3. Plug a hose onto the water outlet nozzle and
place the other end in the measurement tank
of HM 150.
4. Insert the standpipe.
5. Fill the supply tank of HM 150 with water.
6. Open the gate valve on HM 150.
Fig. 3.4 Water connection and installation of the standpipe
HM 150.10 VISUALISATION OF STREAMLINES
3 Description of the device 10
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 11/2017
3.3.2 Bleeding and fitting the glass plate
7. Make sure that the flow calming element is
inserted.
8. Place the round cord seal into the groove of
the flow chamber.
9. Close all valves on HM 150.10.
10. Switch on the pump on HM 150.
11. Bleed the hoses and valves:
• Slowly open the valves on HM 150.10.
Make sure that the water does not overflow.
• Wait until there are no more bubbles and
then close the valves. Only inlet valve a
remains open.
• The pump on HM 150 is still running.
12. Insert a drag model and firmly press it firmly
onto the plastic plate.
13. Place the edge of the glass plate on the
round cord seal on the inlet side.
14. Slowly tilt the glass plate down. Make sure
that no air bubbles are trapped. Repeat
this step as necessary.
To avoid air bubbles, add a drop of detergent to the plastic plate.
Fig. 3.5 Preparing for assembly
Round cord
seal
Element to
calm the flow
Fig. 3.6 Fitting the glass plate
HM 150.10 VISUALISATION OF STREAMLINES
3 Description of the device 11
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 11/2017
15. Place the frame on the glass plate and fix
both in place using the 4 fasteners.
3.3.3 Filling with ink and injecting ink
16. Make sure that the pump on HM 150 is still
running.
17. Close valve 2 on the ink tank.
18. Mix 1 part ink with 5 parts water and pour the
mixture into the ink tank.
19. Open valve 2 on the ink tank. The streamlines are now visible.
NOTICE
To avoid air bubbles, make sure that there is
always enough diluted ink in the ink tank.
Fig. 3.7 Fitting the frame
Frame
HM 150.10 VISUALISATION OF STREAMLINES
3 Description of the device 12
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 11/2017
3.4 Care and maintenance
• The supply tank on the HM 150 base module
holds about 170L. In order to obtain proper
observations, replace the water after the ink
tank has been filled 6 to 7 times.
• Ink can be washed out of textiles but adheres
to aluminium and plastics. Therefore immediately remove splashes of ink from the device
with water.
• The white surface of the flow chamber and the
glass plate must be kept very clean for proper
operation. Please use a lint-free cloth.
• Blocked injection holes: Flush the holes or
remove dirt with a 0,7 mm drill bit.
HM 150.10 VISUALISATION OF STREAMLINES
4 Experiments 13
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 11/2017
4 Experiments
The selection of experiments makes no claims of
completeness but is intended to be used as a
stimulus for your own experiments.
The results shown are intended as a guide only.
Depending on the construction of the individual
components, experimental skills and environmental conditions, deviations may occur in the experiments. Nevertheless, the laws can be clearly
demonstrated.
4.1 Objective of the experiment
This experiment visualizes streamlines and looks
at the influence of sources and sinks.
4.2 Conducting the experiment
See Chapter 3.3, Page 9.
4.3 Results of the experiment
When a fluid, e.g. water, flows around a body this
can be observed by making the streamlines visible. If a steady flow occurs, the streamlines are
identical with the path lines, i.e. the trajectories of
the individual liquid particles. The closer the
streamlines are to each other, the greater the flow
velocity.
HM 150.10 VISUALISATION OF STREAMLINES
4 Experiments 14
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4.3.1 Flow around bodies
Fig. 4.1 shows the flow chamber recording of the
triangle under surrounding flow. We can see that
the top of the body is neatly surrounded by flow.
After passing the edge, however, the streamlines
separate from the body and turbulence occurs.
Looking at the flow around the aerofoil (Fig. 4.2),
it becomes clear that the flow separation is far
less severe here. Nevertheless, the turbulence
increases as the Reynolds number (Re) becomes
smaller:
(4.1)
v Flow velocity
l Length of aerofoil
Density of water
(at 20°C = 890kg/m3)
Dynamic viscosity ( kg/ms)
If the angle of attack increases, this results in
increasing flow separation.
Pay attention to the distance between the streamlines; this is a measure of the flow velocity.
Fig. 4.1 Triangle
Turbulence
Fig. 4.2 Aerofoil
Turbulence
Re v l   

= —————-


 1 002 10 ,  –3
HM 150.10 VISUALISATION OF STREAMLINES
4 Experiments 15
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4.3.2 Sources and sinks
We can obtain interesting flow patterns by adding
more water (source) or by removing water (sink).
Fig. 4.3 shows an example pattern with two flow
sinks.
In reality, for example, the flow properties of an
aeroplane wing are improved by sucking air in the
rear part of the wing (sink) so that the flow is
applied longer.
Fig. 4.3 Flow pattern with two sinks
HM 150.10 VISUALISATION OF STREAMLINES
5 Appendix 16
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5 Appendix
5.1 Technical data
Length x Width x Height 640 x 520 x 520 mm
Weight approx. 24 kg
Contrast medium ink
Ink tank capacity 200 mL
Hydrostatic pressure in the flow chamber 50…150 mm WC
5.2 List of abbreviations
5.3 List of formula symbols and units
Abbreviation Meaning
WC Water column
Formula
symbols
Mathematical/physical variable Unit
l Length of aerofoil m
Re Reynolds number –
v Flow velocity m/s
Density kg/m³
Dynamic viscosity kg/ms

 

Hi All,
Please note that ​ you should not be using any models that we have not discussed in class
(e.g. logit, ordered logit, probit, etc.) in your projects. ​ If you are using binary data you can
run a Linear Probability Model with OLS, and in general you should only be using OLS
regression analysis for your project.

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