HIV affecting women and men through the United States


can you please use these sources in the PDF anottated bibliography as the sources in the essay?The increase of HIV throughout low income people in the United States
Harley Shumaker
Department of English, Lees McRae College
Professor Olson
October 27, 2020
Sikkema KJ, Heckman TG, Kelly JA, Anderson ES, Winett RA, Solomon LJ, Wagstaff DA,
Roffman RA, Perry MJ, Cargill V, Crumble DA, Fuqua RW, Norman AD, & Mercer
MB. (1996). HIV risk behaviors among women living in low-income, inner-city
housing developments. American Journal of Public Health, 86(8), 1123–
The article is explaining how a study was preformed about women who live in lowincome and inner-city housing developments. There were many anonymous questionnaires
given to women living in these conditions to determine the risk of HIV they have
encountered. The results concluded HIV is highest among women. Due to this people are
attempting to place HIV prevention efforts for women in the inner-city or low-income houses.
This article is helping me with my research paper by giving details about a research
done to prove my idea. The source has hard facts such as numbers and percentages explaining
how this has escalated throughout these types of homes. It explains details on how they want
to help prevent these actions for proceeding at the rate it is occurring. This helps me with
ideas to add into my research paper.
Kelly JA, Murphy DA, Sikkema KJ, McAuliffe TL, Roffman RA, Solomon LJ, Winett RA,
Kalichman SC, Kelly, J. A., Murphy, D. A., Sikkema, K. J., McAuliffe, T. L.,
Roffman, R. A., Solomon, L. J., Winett, R. A., & Kalichman, S. C. (1997).
Randomised, controlled, community-level HIV-prevention intervention for sexual-risk
behaviour among homosexual men in US cities. Community HIV Prevention Research
Collaborative. Lancet, 350 North American Edition(9090), 1500–
The source is explained how community interventions needs to be introduced so the
public so the rising HIV number can begin to decline. The research article sent popular men to
gay bars in eight small cities in hopes of decreasing the risk behavior. The outcome they were
looking for was behavior change throughout the men. With the change in behavior the
researches are hoping the HIV numbers will begin declining.
This article will help me with my research paper, because it explains that HIV are not
only rapidly growing in women but is rapidly growing through the male gender also. The
source explains that with the behavior changed the numbers began to decrease significantly. It
gives the insight that popular and well- liked people throughout the community can make
changes very quickly and that gives me more ideas for my research paper.
Sikkema KJ, Kelly JA, Winett RA, Solomon LJ, Cargill VA, Roffman RA, McAuliffe TL,
Heckman TG, Anderson EA, Wagstaff DA, Norman AD, Perry MJ, Crumble DA, & Mercer
MB. (2000). Outcomes of a randomized community-level HIV prevention intervention for
women living in 18 low-income housing developments. American Journal of Public
Health, 90(1), 57–63.
In the article there was six hundred and ninety women surveyed in five U.S cities from lowincome housing. This preformed insight that these women after they went to their events and
interventions the numbers began to change. The percentage of women having unprotected sex
went down and the percentage of protected sex moved up. In the article this was a huge
positive outcome by minimizing the HIV spread. The article also mentions the use a popular
opinion leader take account in dropping the HIV spread numbers.
The article provides me a lot of information for my research paper such as number and
percentages. This will help my paper draw more attention because having numbers is having
facts. This will help be more specific throughout the paper by having this because its hard
evidence and proof off my research topic.
Sionean, C., Le, B. C., Hageman, K., Oster, A. M., Wejnert, C., Hess, K. L., & Paz-Bailey, G.
(2014). HIV Risk, Prevention, and Testing Behaviors Among Heterosexuals at Increased Risk
for HIV Infection — National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, 21 U.S. Cities,
2010. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 63(14), 1–39.
The article is giving the facts of in 2010 around 872,990 people in the United States were
living with HIV. Men having sex with men, injecting drug users, and heterosexual are increased
risk for HIV. Participants that follow under the list above could participate in a standardized
questionnaire. The NHBS data is guiding national and local planning efforts to maximize the
impact of HIV prevention programs.
The article provides a lot of information about the amount of HIV throughout
2010 and the actions taken to drop the inclining amount of people gaining HIV. The amount of
people has unprotected sex has rapidly decreased since then. Researches are still looking for way
to help prevent the number inclining. Which one is by giving out free condoms which adds to my
research paper and helps me with ideas of how to slow down the spread of HIV.
Ogunwale, A. N., Coleman, M. A., Sangi-Haghpeykar, H., Valverde, I., Montealegre, J., JibajaWeiss, M., & Anderson, M. L. (2016). Assessment of factors impacting cervical cancer
screening among low-income women living with HIV-AIDS. AIDS Care, 28(4), 491–494.
This article goes into detail over how HIV affects the people with cervical cancer. The
risk becomes higher for women. The article says that two hundred and nine women submitted a
self-administered questionnaire and those women self-identified with having HIV. Only one
hundred and seventy-nine women claimed that they had a Pap test preformed in the last three
years. The research group is hoping to take future measures to improve the care of the population
by increasing the knowledge of cervical cancer risk and factors.
The article will help me with my research paper, because it brings up a topic, I have no
mentioned yet. Talking about cancer is a scary subject and scaring people can always help them
stop doing something that is not good for them or start doing something that will be good for
them. It explains a thought I had not thought about before and it mentions how younger women
who are single are more likely to carry this and that gives me a specific group to mention in my
Catz SL, Gore-Felton C, & McClure JB. (2002). Psychological distress among minority and lowincome women living with HIV. Behavioral Medicine, 28(2), 53–60.
Bacha, J. M., El-Mallawany, N. K., Slone, J. S., Wilkinson, J. P., Mehta, P. S., & Campbell, L. R. (2020).
Recommendations for treating life-threatening Kaposi sarcoma during pregnancy in HIV-positive
women in low income countries. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 31(8), 724–734.
Robb, L., Walsh, C., & Nel, M. (2020). Knowledge, perceptions and practices of HIV-infected mothers
regarding HIV and infant feeding. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 33(1), 23–29.

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