Landscape Architecture essay

Landscape Architecture essay on United State Park Movement, Eclectic Revival, City Beautiful Movement
I have attached the criteria of the essay below in the file named module 14 essay 3, as well as the module (module 12) which I want the essay to be written about. The pdf has all the explanations for what must be written in the essay.

LAA • 5716
Professor Juan Antonio Bueno
Florida International University
School of Architecture
History of
United States early garden + campus
United States Park Movement
United States Eclectic Revival
United States City Beautiful Movement
Sites—Idea + Context—Space
Further study
Copyright © 2018 by Juan Antonio Bueno
All rights reserved
LAA • 5716
module 12
Landscape Garden to Contemporary
Prehistoric Western Europe
Ancient + Medieval Western Europe
Ancient Middle East
Islamic + mudéjar Spain
Renaissance Italy
Baroque France + Rome
English Garden, Public Park, Garden City
Chinese City. Japanese Garden
Pre-Columbian + Colonial America
US Early Garden + Campus
US Park Movement
US Eclectic Revival
US City Beautiful Movement
Modern Europe + America
English Landscape Garden English Public Park English Garden City Chinese City
Japanese Garden Pre-Columbian America Colonial America US Early Garden + Campus
US Parks Movement US Eclectic + City Beautiful Modern Europe + America Contemporary US + UE
Bernard Tschumi Architects 28 10 10 6:56 pm
file:///Users/jabueno/Desktop/Bernard%20Tschumi%20Architects.html Page 1 of 1
Parc de la Villette
Paris, 1982-1998
An award-winning project noted for its
architecture and new strategy of
urban organization, La Villette has
become known as an unprecedented
type of park, one based on “culture”
rather than “nature.” The park is
located on what was one of the last
remaining large sites in Paris, a 125-
acre expanse previously occupied by
the central slaughter houses and
situated at the northeast corner of the
city. In addition to the master plan,
the project involved the design and
construction of over 25 buildings,
promenades, covered walkways,
bridges, and landscaped gardens over
a period of fifteen years. A system of
dispersed “points”—the red enameled
steel folies that support different
cultural and leisure activities—is
superimposed on a system of lines
that emphasizes movement through
the park. more
Program: Cultural, Master Plan,
Performance, Theoretical
English / Français Search © Bernard Tschumi Architects
US early garden and campus—sites
Virginia. Mount Vernon
Virginia. Monticello
South Carolina. Middleton Place
Virginia. University of Virginia
US Park Movement—sites
New York. Central Park
New York. Prospect Park
Massachusetts. Emerald Necklace
Massachusetts. Boston Metropolitan Parks
Wyoming, Montana, Idaho. Yellowstone
California. Yosemite National Park
Florida. Everglades National Park
Florida. Cape Florida State Park
Mount Vernon Monticello Middleton Place University of Virginia
Central Park Prospect Park Emerald Necklace Boston Metropolitan Parks
Yellowstone National Park Yosemite National Park Everglades National Park Cape Florida State Park
US early garden and campus—sites
Virginia. Mount Vernon
Virginia. Monticello
South Carolina. Middleton Place
Virginia. University of Virginia
US early garden—Virginia
Located on the banks of the Potomac River
near Alexandria, Mount Vernon was the
plantation of George and Martha
Washington. The Washington family had
owned the land since 1674, and the wood
Palladian house was built circa 1734 and
expanded by George Washington in the
1750s and 1770s.
The site plan of the house is organized
along a main axis from the front door to the
bowling green and a perpendicular minor
axis across the carriage turnaround in front
of the house. Inside, the bowling green has
symmetrically wavy side pathways. A circumferential road embraces the whole, leading
to the carriage turnaround.
Mount Vernon, near Alexandria
US early garden—Virginia
Once eight thousand but now five hundred
acres in extent, the plantation is a National
Historic Landmark. Without a professional
designer, the scheme of the plantation is
appreciated for its simple coherence.
Mount Vernon,
map transmitted by George Washington
US early garden—Virginia
The house is approach by a carriage
road that encircles a bowling green
facing the house. On the sides of the
green are the Box Garden and Kitchen
Garden. Ha-has are used to separate
pleasure from utilitarian uses, which
included the wash house, laundry yard,
smokehouse, ice-house, coach house,
stable, and paddock.
Mount Vernon, bowling green
US early garden—Virginia
The house is sided above the floodplain
of the Potomac River.
Mount Vernon
US early garden—Virginia
Mount Vernon, Kitchen Garden
US early garden—Virginia
Mount Vernon,
tread barn in recreated pioneer farm
US early garden—Virginia
Monticello, Charlottesville
US early garden—Virginia
Monticello (little mount) was the primary
plantation of Thomas and Martha Jefferson.
Considered a precursor of classical revival,
Thomas Jefferson designed their neoPalladian house between 1794 and circa
1809. It is a National Historic Landmark.
Monticello and the University of Virginia are
designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Monticello. House
US early garden—Virginia
In contrast to the house, the design of the
grounds, which includes the Fish Pond
and Roundabout Walk behind the house,
is informal and without architectural detail.
Monticello. Fish Pond, Roundabout Walk
US early garden—Virginia
From 1766 to 1824, Jefferson made almost
daily entries in his Garden Book, which
clearly indicates his interest in plants and
planting, though it is evident that his main
concern was farming for consumption and
experimentation, not gardening for pleasure.
Monticello, Vegetable Garden
US early garden—South Carolina
Across the Ashely River, Middleton Place
is a plantation developed from the 1730s
until burned at the end of the Civil War.
It was restored from 1916 till the 1970s. As
a district, it is a National Historic Landmark.
Middleton Place, near Charleston
US early garden—South Carolina
Influenced by The Theory and Practice
of Gardening of Antoine-Joseph Dezallier
d’Argenville, translated into English by
the architect John James (1712, 1728,
1743), Henry Middleton and his English
gardener Simms extended the main
axis of the house along a carriageway
through a green to six turf terraces that
led to the twin Butterfly Lakes along the
Ashley River. Formal gardens, of less
interest, lie to the north of the house.
Middleton Place. Butterfly Lakes, Rice Mill
US early garden—South Carolina
The grounds of Middleton Place are
considered the oldest landscaped
gardens in the United States. A stream,
flowing to the Ashley River, was dammed
to form the Rice Mill Pond.
Middleton Place. Rice Mill Pond
US early campus—Virginia
The University of Virginia was founded by
Thomas Jefferson in 1819. He designed
the curriculum as well as the Academical
Village, which is focused on the Rotunda
(half-scale of the Pantheon in Rome) and
Lawn (originally with an open view of
the fields and mountains beyond). The
Village included housing for faculty and
students. Monticello and the University
of Virginia are a UNESCO World Heritage
University of Virginia, Charlottesville
US early campus—Virginia
On both sides of the Lawn overlooked by
the Rotunda are ten pavilions (I–X), each with
classrooms, faculty lodging, and a garden
(Gärten) enclosed within serpentine walls.
The wavy alignment of the walls provides
structural strength, but using a single running
course of brick. Between the pavilions
are the arcaded student dormitories. Behind
the gardens are the ranges, which also
house student dormitories.
University of Virginia, plan
US early campus—Virginia
In its United States Bicentennial issue,
the AIA Journal (American Institute of
Architects) declared the neo-Palladian
work of Jefferson at the University of
Virginia, built between 1817 and 1826, to
be “the proudest achievement of American
architecture in the past 200 years. With
no formal education or training in design,
Jefferson proved to be a formidable
architect and landscape architect.
University of Virginia, Rotunda
US early campus—Virginia
University of Virginia.
Lawn, Rotunda, Pavilions
US early campus—Virginia
University of Virginia.
Jeffersonian serpentine wall
US Park Movement—sites
New York. Central Park
New York. Prospect Park
Massachusetts. Emerald Necklace
Massachusetts. Boston Metropolitan Parks
Wyoming, Montana, Idaho. Yellowstone
California. Yosemite National Park
Florida. Everglades National Park
Florida. Cape Florida State Park
US Park Movement—New York
Although the first public park in America
was Bosque de Chapultepec (forest) in
México (1530) and in Europe, Alameda
de Hércules (mall) in Sevilla (1574), it is
Central Park, the first public park in the
United States, that has had the greatest
impact worldwide on the democratic ideal
of the public park—city, metropolitan, state,
and national park systems. It is a National
Historic Landmark.
Central Park, Manhattan, New York City, 1868
US Park Movement—New York
Central Park is the result of the winning entry,
Greensward by Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr.
as landscape architect and Calvert Vaux
as architect, in the design competition of 1857.
Since the 1840s, landscape designer Andrew
Jackson Downing in the Horticulturist, and poet
and editor William Cullen Bryant in the New York
Evening Post had advocated for a public park
in crowded New York City, but it was not until
1851 that the New York Legislature passed
the First Park Act with the support of New York
City mayor Ambrose Cornelius Kingsland.
The Amended Park Act of 1853 authorized
the acquisition of the land between Fifth Avenue,
Eighth Avenue, 59th Street, and 106th Street.
The northward extension to 106th Street was
approved in 1859 and to 110th Street in 1863.
Central Park
US Park Movement—New York
Before winning the competition, Olmsted was
appointed superintendent of the park on 11
September of 1857. On October 13 of the same
year, the design competition was announced.
At first Olmsted had no intention of entering in
deference to his engineer supervisor who wished
to enter, but soon changed his mind when the
engineer clearly demonstrated a contemptuous
indifference to his participation. Olmsted joined
Vaux in the winning Greensward of 1858. That
same year, the office of the superintendent was
abolished, and Olmsted was appointed Architect
in Chief of the Central Park until May 1863,
when in the acceptance of their resignations,
Olmsted and Vaux were referred to as
“Landscape Architects”—the first official use of
the term, marking the birthday of the modern
profession of landscape architecture. Reluctant
at first, Olmsted then used the term for life.
Central Park, Guide Map
US Park Movement—New York
Central Park, Prospect Park, and Franklin Park
constitute what is called the Olmsted-Vaux
Triad. Although Prospect Park is most highly
appreciated, Central Park is also a special
urban oasis, especially for its lake and ponds.
The particular design constraints at Central
Park included the rocky terrain, street
boundaries, transverse traffic, five-to-one
ratio in plan dimensions, and inclusion of
pre-existing reservoirs.
Central Park, The Lake
US Park Movement—New York
“The open spaces of Central Park…are
indeed well-formed, positive, placid but
firm on readily perceptible individual sight
-lines” (Newton, 283).
Central Park, The Pond
US Park Movement—New York
Every bridge in Central Park has a unique
design. The Greensward Plan called for
at least thirty-six bridges, all different, all
designed by Vaux.
Central Park, The Bow Bridge
US Park Movement—New York
The Mall, Bethesda Esplanade, and Bethesda
Fountain were designed as the formal urban
places of congregation for residents and
visitors alike.
Central Park, The Mall in 1901
US Park Movement—New York
Central Park. The Mall, Bethesda Terrace,
Bethesda Fountain
US Park Movement—New York
In response to the design program of four
east-west crossroads, Olmsted and
Vaux astutely trenched the north-south
pedestrian flow under vehicular bridges,
then for carriages, now for motor vehicles.
But these requirements, in comparison
to Prospect Park “deprived the older park
of the ready opportunity for a continuing
sequence of spaces ranged on a structure
of serially connected sight-lines” (Newton
Central Park, Playmates Arch
US Park Movement—New York
After the grand success of Central Park,
Olmsted and Vaux designed Prospect
Park for the New York City borough of
Brooklyn between 1865 and 1873 . It is
considered by many the greatest work
by Olmsted and Vaux. The park is listed
in a National Register of Historic Places.
Prospect Park, Brooklyn, New York City
US Park Movement—New York
Prospect Park extends over 526 acres
in three sections—The Long Meadow
(70 acres), The Lake (60 acres), and the
intermediate woodlands. It also has sports
fields and courts, and accommodated the
existing Quaker Cemetery. In addition, the
plan called for the oval approach plaza
that later became Grand Army Plaza.
Plan of Prospect Park, 1901
US Park Movement—New York
In particular, the design is valued for the
psychologically inviting effect of the
curving space in The Long Meadow. The
development of the park benefitted from the
fertile soil at the site and the freedom to conform
the design to the topography without cross
Prospect Park. The Long Meadow
US Park Movement—New York
Prospect Park. The Lake
US Park Movement—New York
As in the case of Central Park, bridges
were designed to separate pedestrian
from vehicular traffic.
Prospect Park. Cleft Ridge Span, 1872
US Park Movement—Massachusetts
Not until 1869 citizens petitioned the Boston
City Council for a park like Central Park,
and not until 1875 did the state legislature
pass and the people accepted the Park
Commission Act. In 1879, Olmsted was
retained as consultant for the selection of
park sites. His recommended four areas
along the Charles River in the marshy
Back Bay, around Jamaica Pond, and in
West Roxbury. Olmsted did not take
part in a competition for the park designs,
but was called upon to review the winning
entry. In consultation with the city engineer,
he proposed a naturalistic solution to the
inundation caused by the Stony Brook and
Muddy River flows against the tidal Charles
River. His recommendation eventually led to
his design of the Emerald Necklace—the first
designed greenway in the United States.
Emerald Necklace parks, Boston
US Park Movement—Massachusetts
In 1878, Olmsted designed the Back Bay
Park—the Fens, as he preferred to call
the site. Two years later, prompted by
his original selection of sites, Olmsted
submitted his Suggestion for the Improvement of Muddy River and for completion
of a Continuous Promenade from the
Common to Jamaica Pond—his greenway
in terms of today. In 1885, West Roxbury
Park was added as Franklin Park in
honor of Benjamin Franklin. The Muddy
River Improvement, Arnold Arboretum,
and Arborway completed the Necklace.
Emerald Necklace,
Common to Franklin Park
US Park Movement—Massachusetts
Emerald Necklace. Boston Common,
established in 1634, image circa 1850s
US Park Movement—Massachusetts
Emerald Necklace. Public Garden, Lagoon
US Park Movement—Massachusetts
Emerald Necklace. Commonwealth Avenue,
statue of Alexander Hamilton
US Park Movement—Massachusetts
Emerald Necklace. Back Bay Fens,
Victory Garden
US Park Movement—Massachusetts
Emerald Necklace. Olmsted Park, Muddy River
US Park Movement—Massachusetts
Emerald Necklace. Jamaica Pond, 1859 image
US Park Movement—Massachusetts
Emerald Necklace. Arnold Arboretum,
Charles Sprague Sargent, first director
US Park Movement—Massachusetts
Emerald Necklace. Franklin Park,
1897 image
US Park Movement—Massachusetts
Charles Eliot entered the profession as
an apprentice in the Olmsted office in
1883, seven years before he proposed
Trustees for Public Reservations toward
the preservation of natural scenery in the
state of Massachusetts. The trust was created
by the state General Court in 1891. The
immediate outcome was the creation of
the first metropolitan park system in the
United States in 1892. By 1895, it included
Beaver Brook, Blue Hills, Hemlock Gorge,
Middlesex Fells, Mystic River, Revere Beach,
and Stony Brook Reservations.
Metropolitan Park System of Greater Boston
US Park Movement—Massachusetts
The metropolitan parks were to include
ocean front spaces, shores and islands
in the inner bay, tidal estuaries, outer
forests, and urban squares and parks.
Boston open spaces in 1892, 1902 (left);
Metropolitan Park System of Greater Boston
US Park Movement—Massachusetts
Metropolitan Park System of Greater Boston,
Charles River Esplanade
US Park Movement—Massachusetts
Metropolitan Park System of Greater Boston,
Beaver Brook State Park
US Park Movement—sites
Wyoming, Montana, Idaho. Yellowstone
California. Yosemite National Park
Florida. Everglades National Park
Florida. Biscayne National Park
Florida. Dry Tortugas National Park
US Park Movement
—Wyoming, Montana, Idaho
The first national park in the United
States was Yellowstone, established in
1872. In Florida, there are three national
parks—Everglades, Biscayne, and Dry
Tortugas. In 1916, the National Park
Service “…thus established shall promote
and regulate the use of Federal areas
known as national parks, monuments and
reservations hereinafter specified by
such means and measure as conform
to fundamental purpose…to conserve
the scenery and the natural and historic
objects and the wild life therein, and to
provide for enjoyment of the same in such
manner and by such means as will leave
them unimpaired for the enjoyment for
future generations.”
Yellowstone National Park
US Park Movement
—Wyoming, Montana, Idaho
Yellowstone National Park was
established following the advocacy of
geologist Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden.
It is named after the columnar basalt present.
It is located on the Yellowstone Caldera
known for its geothermal features, such
as geysers and hot springs. The Yellowstone River and four mountain ranges
transverse the park, which extends over an
area of more than 2.2 million acres.
Yellowstone National Park, Tower Creek,
columnar basalt
US Park Movement
—Wyoming, Montana, Idaho
Yellowstone National Park,
Hayden Valley, Yellowstone River
US Park Movement
—Wyoming, Montana, Idaho
Yellowstone National Park,
elk (Cervus canadensis)
US Park Movement—California
In 1864, Yosemite Valley and Mariposa
Grove of Big Trees were ceded by the
United States to California, becoming
the first state park in the country, to
which Olmsted contributed significantly,
including his report on state parks. A trip
taken in 1903 by Theodore Roosevelt with
naturalist advocate John Muir persuaded the
president to return Yosemite Valley and
Mariposa Grove to federal protection as
part of the Yosemite National Park, with
over three-quarters of a million acres. It
was expanded in 1906
Yosemite National Park, giant sequoias
(Sequoiadendron giganteum),
Bachelor (right, left image),
Three Graces (left, left image),
Grizzly Giant (right image)
US Park Movement—California
Yosemite is widely recognized for its
granite cliffs above the valley carved by
glaciers, giant sequoia groves, lakes and
mountains, and biological diversity.
Yosemite National Park.
El Capitán (left), Half Dome (right)
US Park Movement—Florida
The three national parks in Florida—
Everglades, Biscayne, Dry Tortugas—
are all in south Florida. Other federal
public lands and waters in the region
include Big Cypress National Preserve,
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary,
Florida Keys National Wildlife Refuge,
Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge,
Key Deer National Wildlife Refuge, Key
West National Wildlife Refuge, and White
Heron National Wildlife Refuge. They
were established from 1908 to 1990.
US Park Movement—Florida
The Everglades is the third largest national
park in the United States. It is a UNESCO
World Heritage Site, Ramsar Wetlands of
International Importance, and, along with
Dry Tortugas, UNESCO Biosphere Reserve
—one of only three sites in the world on all
three lists.
The park is the most significant breeding
ground for tropical wading birds in North
America and has the largest tidal wetland in
the Americas.
Although centered on the Royal Palm State
Park of 1916 and authorized in 1938, it was
not dedicated until 1947. The principal
advocates for the creation of the park were
journalist Marjory Stoneman Douglas
and landscape architect Ernest F. Coe.
Everglades National Park
US Park Movement—Florida
Although it only encompasses twenty
percent of the original Everglades, it
was the first national park created to
protect a fragile ecosystem, rather than
geographic features. The Everglades,
not just the park, is a wetland and upland
network from Lake Okeechobee to Florida
Bay. Flowing at the rate of a quarter mile
per day, it is the primary water source that
replenishes the Biscayne Aquifer.
The park is habitat to the Florida Panther
(Puma concolor couguar), the American
manatee (Trichechus manatus), and the
American crododile (Crocodylus acutus),
along with numerous taxa—350 birds,
three hundred freshwater and salt water
fish, forty mammals, and fifty reptiles
Everglades National Park,
sawgrass marsh, Long Key (horizon)
US Park Movement—Florida
In his Report of State Park Survey of California
(1927–1928, 1929), Olmsted offered the
general specificatons for state parks, still valid
“They should be sufficiently distinctive and
notable to interest people from com-paratively
distant parts of the state to visit and use
them…Also they should, in general, be
situated beyond the limits of urban and
suburban communities which have sufficient
population and wealth to assume the
obligation of providing parks that would be
mainly serviceable for the daily use of their
own citizens…
They should be characterized by scenic and
recreational resources of kinds which are unlikely
to be reasonably well conserved and made
available for enjoyment under private ownership…”
Key Biscayne.
Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park,
established in 1967
US Park Movement—Florida
“They should be as nearly as possible just
sufficient in number and extent and character
to meet the prospective demands of the people
for the kinds of enjoyment which they can
provide, and which cannot or will be supplied
by such other means as local parks, national
parks and forests, and the use of scenic
They should be geographically distributed with
a view to securing a wide and representative
variety of types for the state as a whole, and at
the same time making a reasonable
assortment of them equitably accessible to the
people in each part of the state” (pages 49–51).
Bahía Honda State Park, established in 1961
US Eclectic Revival—sites
North Carolina. Biltmore Estate
Florida. Villa Vizcaya
US Arts and Crafts Movement—sites
Washington. Dumbarton Oaks
US City Beautiful Movement—sites
Illinois. World’s Columbian Expositon
Washington. The Mall
Florida. Coral Gables
Biltmore Estate Villa Vizcaya Dumbarton Oaks
World’s Columbian Exposition The Mall Coral Gables
US Eclectic Revival—North Carolina
The Biltmore Estate was eclectically
designed by architect Richard Morris
Hunt in a French château manner and
by landscape architect Frederick Law
Olmsted with French, Italian, and naturalist
elements for George W. and Edith
Vanderbilt. Built from 1889 to 1895, it is
a National Historic landmark and the
largest house in the United States, with
a floor area of almost 180,000 square
feet. It was built during the Gilded Age, a
time of extreme wealth inequality in the
Biltmore Estate, near Asheville
US Eclectic Revival—North Carolina
The arrival Esplanade, zigzag limestone
stairway Rampe Douce (gentle ramp),
and the grassy Vista with the statue of
the goddess of the hunt Diana at the top
are the principal French baroque revivalist
elements in the design.
Biltmore Estate.
Esplanade, Rampe Douce, Vista
US Eclectic Revival—North Carolina
The architecture of the house was influenced
by Waddesdon Manor in England, itself a
neo-Renaissance château, and the châteaux
de Bois, Chenonceau, and Chambord in
France. During the Eclectic Revival period,
it was customary to emulate European
architecture as exemplar of good taste.
Oddly, the Italian Garden exhibits a rather
French spatial geometry and expanse.
Biltmore Estate.
Château (center), Esplanade (bottom right),
Italian Garden (bottom left),
Blue Ridge Mountains (horizon)
US Eclectic Revival—North Carolina
The view from the mansion and bowling
green opens to the French Broad River
below and the Blue Ridge Mountains in the
Biltmore Estate. Bowling Green (center),
Blue Ridge Mountains (horizon)
US Eclectic Revival—North Carolina
Biltmore Estate.
Walled Garden, Conservatory
US Eclectic Revival—North Carolina
Off the formal grounds, Olmsted added
the naturalist Bass Pond, created from
a former millpond fed by a creek, for
recreation, fishing, and rowing. He also
designed two reservoirs—a brick basin
sited behind the statue of Diana in the
Vista, and an artificial lake sited in Busbee
Mountain and fed from springs.
Biltmore Estate. Bass Pond
US Eclectic Revival—Florida
Situated on Biscayne Bay just three miles
south of the Miami River, Villa Vizcaya
was developed by industrialist James
Edward Deering as his winter home
between 1912 and 1922. As the preeminent natural and cultural historic site
in Miami, it was designated a National
Historic Landmark by the United States
National Park Service in 1994.
At Vizcaya, the neoclassical meets the
neotropical in an eclectic, Mediterranean
Revival villa design. The designers were
architect Francis Burrall Hoffman, artistic
director Paul Chalfin, and landscape
architect Diego Suárez Costa, who
studied engineering in his native country
of Colombia and then architecture at
l’Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze.
Coconut Grove, Florida. Villa Vizcaya
US Eclectic Revival—Florida
Villa Rezzonico at Bassano del Grappa
in the Veneto, which Deering and
Chalfin had visited together, became the
model for the Main House of Villa Vizcaya.
The house was sited among the mangroves that bordered the Brickell Hammock.
Today, Vizcaya, Simpson Park, and Alice
Wainwright Park are remnant patches of
the hammock that extended from the
Miami River to Coconut Grove. The Farm
Village of outbuildings was sited in the pine
rockland of the Miami Rock Ridge.
The chain cascades at Villa Lante (1566
and after) in Bagnaia and the Villino
Farnese (ca. 1620) in Caprarola were
likely sources for the fountains of the
Approach Allée.
Vizcaya Museum & Gardens.
Approach Allée, Forecourt, west portico
US Eclectic Revival—Florida
The terraces, arms, Venetian bridges,
and steps into Biscayne Bay were
modeled on the fondamente veneziane
and the steps of the Campo di San Giorgio
Maggiore or Santa Maria della Salute in
Venice, rendered in la pietra d’Istria.
This limestone is similar in texture but
denser than the coralina cubana, Key Largo
coral limestone, and Miami oolitic limestone that were used at Vizcaya. The
triple arcade with double columns at the
Villa Pliniana on the shores of Lago di
Como was the inspiration for the East
Loggia—a transitional space between
the Inner Court, which Villa Rezzonico
lacks, and the East Terrace, Barge, and
Biscayne Bay beyond.
Vizcaya Museum & Gardens.
East Terrace, Biscayne Bay
US Eclectic Revival—Florida
The gardens of Isola Bella (1671) in Lago
Maggiore, the boats in the water basins
of the Quadrato of Villa Lante, and the
Fontana de la Barcaccia (1627) by
Pietro Bernini and his son Gian Lorenzo
Bernini for the Piazza di Spagna in Rome
are well known precedents for the Barge
at Vizcaya.
Vizcaya Museum & Gardens.
The Barge
US Eclectic Revival—Florida
The Secret Sunken Garden, originally
intended for orchids, most likely used
the gabinetto rustico (small rustic room)
at Villa Gamberaia (eighteenth to twentieth
centuries) in Settignano overlooking
Florence as inspiration. Likewise, the
theater was based on similar types, such
as the Teatro di verzura (theater of
greenery) at Villa Reale di Marlia near
Lucca in Italy.
Vizcaya Museum & Gardens.
Secret Sunken Garden
US Eclectic Revival—Florida
When Suárez visited the site in early
1915, he modified the original design,
which has been lost, of the formal gardens
with the addition of the Casino atop a
mound, influenced by the casino at
Villino Farnese in Caprarola, to screen
the solar reflection off the southern tidal
lagoons (now lost) as seen from the Main
House. In a similar way, the cascade down
the Mound was modeled on the stairs
with cascade at Villa Corsini in Rome,
now in the Orto Botanico dell’Università
di Roma (La Sapienza), using measured
drawings by Suárez.
Vizcaya Museum & Gardens.
Water parterre, mound, cascade, casino
US Eclectic Revival—Florida
Vizcaya Museum & Gardens.
Mound side steps, ramps, and step-ramps
up to the Mound
US Eclectic Revival—Florida
Vizcaya Museum & Gardens.
View of the Main House from the mound
US Eclectic Revival—Florida
Vizcaya Museum & Gardens.
View of the gardens from the mound,
toward the mangroves of Biscayne Bay
US Arts and Crafts—Washington, DC
The gardens of Dumbarton Oaks in
Georgetown were originally designed by
Beatrix Jones Farrand for Mildred and
Robert Bliss from 1922 to 1947. It
features a variety of expressions,
including English Cottage, English
Landscape Garden, and Arts and Crafts
elements. Farrand and Mildred Bliss
worked closely to create terraced
gardens and vistas, orchards and
kitchen gardens, and woods and
meadows. They also designed the
gates, benches, and ornaments, and
selected the sculptures for the gardens.
Dumbarton Oaks
US Arts and Crafts—Washington, DC
Flourishing from the 1880s to 1920s in
Europe and the United States, the Arts
and Crafts movement emphasized the
use of traditional craftsmanship in the
fine and decorative arts, using simple
forms that were often folk, medieval, or
Romantic in origin. Its anti-industrial
stance was influential until the advent of
modernism in the 1930s, though it persisted
mainly among craft makers.
It is a National Historic Place, as well as
center for the Landscape Architecture
Studies, now Garden and Landscape
Studies, program that support the study
of gardens and the history of landscape
architecture from antiquity to the present.
Dumbarton Oaks
US Arts and Crafts—Washington, DC
Dumbarton Oaks. North Lawn grass steps
US Arts and Crafts—Washington, DC
Dumbarton Oaks. Pebble Garden
US Arts and Crafts—Washington, DC
Dumbarton Oaks. Hornbean Ellipse
US City Beautiful Movement—Illinois
Held one year after the four hundredth
anniversary of the arrival of Columbus
to America, the World’s Columbian
Exposition was meant to represent the
pinnacle of accomplishment for the United
States in art and design. It was highly
regarded as a stimulus for public interest
in civic design and for interprofessional
collaboration. A direct result was the City
Beautiful Movement, including street electric
lighting, in the United States.
The site was recommended by Olmsted,
who had already worked with Calvert Vaux
on the plan for the municipal South Parks
—Washington Park, Midway Plaisance Park,
and Jackson Park—the latter, the future
location of the exposition on Lake Michigan.
World’s Columbian Expositon, 1893
US City Beautiful Movement—Illinois
However, it has been criticized for its
unequivocal emphasis on neoclassicism
by Eastern architects at a time when the
Chicago School was beginning to emerge
in the Midwest, and London and Paris
had already pushed the limits of steel in
structures, for the Columbian Exposition
followed the success of London in 1851
with the Crystal Palace by Joseph Paxton,
and the Expositions Universelles of Paris
in 1855, 1867, 1878, and especially 1889
with the Tour Eiffel and the Galerie des
World’s Columbian Expositon.
Court of Honor, The Republic
US City Beautiful Movement—Illinois
The layout by Olmsted and Henry Codman
was articulated by a sightline, roughly
perpendicular to the lakefront, with the
buildings sited along the edges of a
rectangular basin as the Court of Honor.
A lesser cross axis of canals led to the
naturalistic lake designed by Olmsted
and location of the Japanese Phoenix
Hall so admired by Frank Lloyd Wright.
In an ironic twist, the white neoclassical
edifices were temporary and constructed
with staff, a mixture of plaster and binding
fiber, on metal armatures.
As a result of the exposition, the American
Academy in Rome in 1894 and the McMillan
Commission for Washington in 1901 were
World’s Columbian Expositon
US City Beautiful Movement—Illinois
World’s Columbian Expositon
US City Beautiful Movement—Washington
The original plan for the Federal City of
Washington, District of Columbia, by the
engineer Pierre Charles L’Enfant was
revived and preserved under the Senate
Park Commission, or McMillan Commission,
of 1901. The commission included landscape
architect Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., architect
Daniel Burnham, architect Charles McKim,
and sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens.
Washington, National Mall
US City Beautiful Movement—Washington
The center of the L’Enfant plan was
articulated by two axes, one running west
from the site of the Congress House (now
the Capitol) and the other south of the site for
the President’s House (now the White
House) that intersected orthogonally at an
equestrian statue of George Washington
(now an obelisk). Overall, the city exhibited
a grid with radiant boulevards, focused on
the Capitol and White House.
Plan of Washington by Andrew Ellicott,
after Pierre Charles L’Enfant plan of 1791
US City Beautiful Movement—Washington
The plan McMillan Plan eliminated the
railroad intrusion and partly neutralized
the Smithsonian Building intrusion into the
Mall, which had been developed as a
Victorian landscape by Andrew Jackson
Downing. The commission plan proposed
the replacement of the Downing landscape with a grassy green, three hundred
feet wide, lined with two tree allées. It also
allowed the construction of museums and
cultural centers behind the allées. New
memorials were sited at the western and
southern ends of the cruciform plan, as
well as reflecting pools at these ends. The
plan obliquely accommodated the off-center
siting of the Washington Monument. The
north-south axis was extended toward
the future site of the Jefferson Memorial.
The McMillan Plan for The Mall, 1901
US City Beautiful Movement—Washington
National Mall.
Lincoln Memorial (front),
Reflecting Pool (center),
Washington Monument (back),
Capitol (horizon)
US City Beautiful Movement—Florida
George Merrick founded Coral Gables
as The City Beautiful in 1925 during the
Florida land boom of the 1920s. The
original plan mandated Mediterranean
Revival architecture. However, eclecticism
soon emerged with buildings, such as
the Spanish Colonial Coral Gables
Congregational Church and the Spanish
Renaissance Church of the Little Flower.
Adding to the eclecticism, Merrick planned
villages in various international idioms within
the city—Chinese, Dutch South African,
French City, French Country, French
Normandy, Italian, and Colonial villages.
Coral Gables
US City Beautiful Movement—Florida
Designed by Schultze and Weaver, the
Miami Biltmore Hotel was built by George
Merrick and John McEntee Bowman in 1926.
The Mediterranean Revival expression
offers Romanesque, Islamic, Renaissance,
and baroque elements in one edifice,
including the Giralda of Sevilla as
precedent for its tower. Another National
Historic Landmark in Miami, the Freedom
Tower, also features the Sevilla tower
as antecedent.
Coral Gables. Miami Biltmore Hotel
US City Beautiful Movement—Florida
The route to the Miami Biltmore Hotel
is also marked by another element
from Sevilla, the de Soto Fountain,
which resembles the fountain below
the Giralda in Sevilla
Coral Gables. De Soto Fountain
US City Beautiful Movement—Florida
The city is also known as a rather green
suburb within Metropolitan Miami for its
dense tree canopy cover.
Coral Gables. Coral Way
Further study
Edmund N. Bacon
Design of Cities 216–221
Geoffrey and Susan Jellicoe
The Landscape of Man 278–283, 306–313
Norman Newton
Design on the Land 246–595
Elizabeth Barlow Rogers
Landscape Design 267–273, 325–330,
368–374, 393–401
Paul Zucker
Town and Square 237–255
California. Yosemite National Park
References Edmund N. Bacon
Design of Cities
Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1974
John Beardsley
Earthworks and Beyond: Contemporary Art in the Landscape
New York, NY: Abbeville Press, 1984
Robert W. Berger
In the Garden of the Sun King: Studies on the Park of Versailles under Louis XIV
Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection
Thomas D. Church
Gardens Are for People
New York: Reinhold Publishing, 1955
David R. Coffin, editor
The Italian Garden
Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Trustees of Harvard University, 1972
Dan Kiley: Landscape Design II: In Step with Nature
Process: Architecture 108
Tokyo, Japan: Process Architecture, 1993
Garrett Eckbo
Landscape for Living
New York, NY: Dodge Corporation, 1950
Julius Gy. Fabos, Gordon T. Milde, and V. Michael Weinmayr
Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr.: Founder of Landscape Architecture in America
Amherst: MA: University of Massachusetts, 1968
Felice Frankel and Jory Johnson
Modern Landscape Architecture
New York, NY: Abbeville Press, 1991
urban design
landscape art
modern California
Italian gardens
work of Dan Kiley
United States
modern landscape
Frederick Law
United States
modern landscape
References Christophe Girot
The Course of Landscape Architecture: A History of Our Designs on the Natural World, from Prehistory to the Present
New York, NY: Thames & Hudson, 2016
Robert E. Grese
Jens Jensen: Maker of Natural Parks and Gardens
Baltimore: ML: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992
Louis Grodecki
Gothic Architecture
New York, NY: Abrams, 1977
Lawrence Halprin
Changing Places
San Francisco, CA: San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
Doral Jane Hamblin
Has the Garden of Eden been located at last?
Smithsonian 18(1987): 2
Jorge Hardoy
Ciudades precolombinas
Buenos Aires: Ediciones Infinito, 1964
Doris Heyden and Paul Gendrop
Pre-Columbian Architecture of Mesoamerica
New York: Abrams, 1973
John D. Hoag
Islamic Architecture
New York, NY: Abrams, 1975
Walter Horn and Ernest Born
The Plan of Saint Gall
Berkeley: University of California, 1979
general history
Jens Jensen
Gothic architecture
United States
modern landscape
Garden of Eden
Islamic architecture
plan of Saint Gall
References Walter Horn and Ernest Born
The Plan of Saint Gall: In Brief
Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1982
Catherine Howett
Abstracting the Landscape: The Artistry of Landscape Architect A. E. Bye
University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University, 1990
John Dixon Hunt
Gardens and the Picturesque
Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1992
John Dixon Hunt and Peter Willis, editors
The Genius of the Place: The English Landscape Garden 120–1820
Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1988
Dorothee Imbert
The Modernist Garden in France
New Haven, CN: Yale University Press, 1993
Faith Reyher Jackson
William Lyman Phillips: Pioneer of Tropical Landscape Architecture
Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1997
Jens Jensen
Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1939, 1990
Robin Karson
A Genius for Place: American Landscapes of the Country Place Era
Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts, 2007
Hans Erich Kubach
Romanesque Architecture
New York, NY: Abrams, 1972
plan of Saint Gall
work of A. E. Bye
landscape garden
landscape garden
modern garden
Florida tropical
native landscape
United States
Country Place Era
References Ann Leighton
American Gardens in the Eighteenth Century
Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts, 1876
Ann Leighton
American Gardens of the Nineteenth Century: For Comfort and Affluence
Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1987
Anne Leighton
Early American Gardens: “For Meate or Medicine”
Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts, 1970
Seton Lloyd, Hans Wolfgang Mülller, Roland Martin
Ancient Architecture: Mesopotamia, Egypt, Grete, Greece
New York, NY: Abrams, 1972
Elisabeth B. Macdougall and Wilhemina F. Jashemski, editors
Ancient Roman Gardens
Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Trustees of Harvard University
Elisabeth Blair Macdougall, editor
Ancient Roman Villa Gardens
Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Trustees of Harvard University
Elisabeth B. Macdougall, Terry Comito, George Hersey, Detlef Heikamp, Noami Miller
Fons Sapientiae: Renaissance Garden Fountains
Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Trustees of Harvard University, 1978
Elisabeth B. Macdougall, editor
Medieval Gardens
Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Trustees of Harvard University
Elisabeth B. Macdougall and F. Hamilton Hazlehurst, editors
The French Formal Garden
Washington , DC: Dumbarton Oaks Trustees of Harvard University, 1974
eighteenth century
United States
nineteenth century
United States
early United States
ancient architecture
Roman gardens
villa gardens
garden fountains
medieval gardens
French formal
References Elisabeth B. Macdougall and Richard Ettinghausen
The Islamic Garden
Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Trustees of Harvard University
Diane Kostial McGuire and Lois Fern, editors
Beatrix Jones Farrand (1872–1959): Fifty Years of American Landscape Architecture
Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Trustees for Harvard University
Elizabeth Meyer
Martha Schwartz: Transfiguration of the Commonplace
Washington, DC: Spacemaker Press, 1997
Peter Murray
Renaissance Architecture
New York: Abrams, 1971
Norman T. Newton
Design on the Land: The Development of Landscape Architecture
Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
Christian Norberg-Schulz
Baroque Architecture
Abrams: New York, 1971
Christian Norberg-Schulz
Genius Loci, Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture
New York: Rizzoli, 1980
Nicolai Ouroussoff
A Forest of Pillars, Recalling the Unimaginable
New York Times, 9 May 2005
Peter Walker: Landscape as Art
Process: Architecture 85
Tokyo, Japan: Process Architecture, 1989
Islamic garden
Beatrix Jones
general history
Italian Renaissance
United States
of place
of place
Holocaust Memorial
work of Peter Walker
References Nikolaus Pevsner, editor
The Picturesque Garden and Its Influence Outside the British Isles
Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Trustees for Harvard University, 1974
Peter Reed
Groundswell: Constructing the Contemporary Landscape
New York: NY: The Museum of Modern Art, 2005
Elizabeth Barlow Rogers
Landscape Design: A Cultural and Architectural History
New York, NY: Abrams, 2001
Vincent Scully
The Earth, The Temple, and the Gods: Greek Sacred Architecture
New Haven, CN: Yale University Press, 1979
John Ormsbee Simonds
Landscape Architecture: The Shaping of Man’s Natural Environment
New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1961
Dennis J. Stanford and Bruce A. Bradley
Across Atlantic Ice: The Origin of America’s Clovis Culture
Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2012
Manfredo Tafuri and Fracesco dal Co
Modern Architecture
New York, NY: Abrams, 1976
George B. Tatum and Elisabeth Blair Macdougall, editors
Prophet with Honor: The Career of Andrew Jackson Downing, 1815–1852
Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1989
Peter Walker and Melanie Simo
Invisible Gardens: The Search for Modernism in the American Landscape
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996
landscape garden
general history
sacred architecture
United State
humans in America
modern architecture
Andrew Jackson
United States
modern landscape
References John B. Ward-Perkins Roman Architecture
New York, NY: Abrams, 1977, 1979
Donald Newton Wilber
Persian Gardens and Garden Pavilions
Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Trustees of Harvard University, 1979
Paul Zucker
Town and Square: From the Agora to the Village Green
Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1970
Roman architecture
gardens and pavilions
urban space

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based on topic from
module 11—Pre-Columbian and colonial America
module 12—United State Park Movement,
Eclectic Revival, City Beautiful Movement
module 13—Modern Europe and America
LAA • 5716
essay 3
module 14
The essay module consists of research and writing that must address a historic site, period, designer, or user selected
by the student as a topic from modules 11 through 13. The essay must be on urban design or landscape architecture;
not art, poetry, music, or architecture, though these may be appropriately referenced in the text.
The essay must be an analytical and critical, not just descriptive, response to the selected topic. The description should
address the pertinent work, location, dates, and personalities. The analysis should address the objective of the work,
as well as its natural, cultural, and aesthetic contexts. The critique should focus on the positive and negative aspects
of the work. Use the citations to support the analysis and critique, not ordinary information in the description.
The text should be structured as an essay with introduction, body, and conclusion. The length of the essay must be
1500 words, excluding quotations and illustrations. The style of the essay, including the citations of sources using
footnotes without bibliography or list of references, must follow The Chicago Manual of Style. The footnotes should be
keyed to the text with superscripts. Printable size is 8½ by 11 inches, vertical format.
The required minimum number of sources cited from scholarly books and journals is four. These sources may be from
the further-study suggestions in each module. If appropriate, professional magazines and academically unpublished
internet sources may be used as sources, but they do not count toward the required minimum number of sources.
Descriptive aspects of the essay— the who, what, when, where, as they relate to the topic—one fifth of grade.
Analytical aspects of the essay—the why, what for, due to what, as they relate to the topic—one fifth of grade.
Critical aspects of the essay—the how well, how significant, as they relate to the topic—one fifth of grade.
Writing aspects of the essay—spelling, syntax, length, structure—one fifth of grade.
Sources for the essay—citations from four different scholarly books or journals—one fifth of grade (see samples below).
Geoffrey and Susan Jellicoe, The Landscape of Man (New York: Thames & Hudson, 1998), [page number if quote].
Elizabeth Meyer, “Situating Modern Landscape Architecture” in Theory in Landscape Architecture: A Reader
(Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 21–31, [page number if quote].
Lawrence Halprin, “Design as a Value System,” Places: A Quarterly Journal of Environmental Design 6, no. 1
(Fall 1989): 60–67. (Variations: [volume (number): pages], [volume (date): pages], [volume:pages]. [year, pages].)
Same as above, but add Uniform Resource Locator (URL). Also, add date accessed, if time-sensitive information.
Best wishes for success!
book footnote
book chapter
journal article
electronic journal

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