Negative Effects of Divorce on Children

The Negative Effects of Divorce on the Behavior of Children


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1.1 Introduction

Research states that half of marriages in the United States will end in divorce, and about half of American children will experience the divorce of their parents before the age of 18 (Amato, 2000; Copen et al., 2012). According to the US Census Bureau, The rate of divorce in America is computed as the number of divorces relative to 1,000 married ladies, during the late 1980s and early 1990s; the rate of divorce reached a historic high of 22.6 divorces (United States Census Bureau, 2013). Research has focused on the reasons that’s “why” and methodology that is “how” divorce affects children’s adjustment, given a large number of children that are affected by divorce. Research regularly shows a negative correlation between parental divorce and children wellbeing.

For example, children coming from divorced families tend to deal more harshly with life’s circumstances, by experiencing depression and get stuck forming close relationships with others. Children also tend to have antisocial behaviors. In addition to these measures, establishing and developing a close intimate relationship is an important indicator of how children adjust to their parents’ divorce. Research has found parental divorce to have a significant adverse effect on children’s relationship, such as intimacy and establishing trust and close relationship with others (Daly, 2003). Among children of divorce, few studies have examined boys and girls emotional perspective about divorce. There is less research on the long-term effect of parental divorce and coping strategies about how children focused on divorce.

The rates of divorce rose a dramatic 79 percent in Divorce on Children the United States between 1970 and 1977. Although these escalated rates have since declined, many marriages still end up in divorce. According to the US Census Bureau (2013), in the 1970s, children were considered better off living with one parent than living with both parents during and amidst conflict, abuse, or both. Indeed, there is a substantial affirmation from many research studies that indicate a “conflict-ridden” marriage is not in the best interest of the children. This research paper summarizes the findings of several recent studies related to this question.

1.2 Background of the Problem

Despite personal values, community standards, or religious teachings, divorce is a fact of life, as shown by these facts: 2 of 5 children will experience the divorce of their parents before they reach of 18; About 25 percent of every child will all people regardless of spending some time in a step family regardless of race, color, national origin, A couple’s marriage lasts about 7.2 sex, age, or disability. According to US Census Bureau, divorce rate leveled in the 1980’s at the rate of 11 percent lower than in 1979 and there are about 1,250,000 divorces cases per year in the United States; and every year, over 1 million children under age 18 are involved in a divorce (United States Census Bureau, 2013).

Divorce is so complicated a phenomenon than it appears on the outside. Discontinuing a marriage relationship is not a short-term occurrence that occurs in a courtroom but a process. Usually, some circumstances and conducts on the part of either spouse’s erode the positive feelings toward one or the other or both. Throughout the duration, one or both of the couple becomes persuaded that the relationship is not at least functional. The divorcing couples and the whole family encounter rapid changes that impact nearly every aspect of their lives.

There have been dramatic and remarkable changes in American family in the last five decades. There are now a large number of the family structure present in today’s society including married, divorced, cohabitating, step families, single, foster, same-sex couples, and intergenerational households. However, marriage remains the desired status in society, with a lot of the early research on family change referring to stable married families in analytic models. A number of research have been committed to understanding the effect of parental divorce on children and research propose that some ramifications of divorce are long-lasting, but more research his especially needed on the long-term impact outcomes of children of divorce.

According to Wolchik, Schenck, and Sandler (2009), parental divorce is one of the most prevalent adversities experienced by adults, and children in the United States. Research states that children who experienced parental divorce are at risk for a host of adverse outcomes. Mustonen et al., (2011), says that research has measured divorce and the consequences it has on children and found the association between parental divorce in childhood and the quality of intimate relationship children have in early adulthood. The majority of these studies have consistently found a negative correlation between parental divorce or otherwise non-intact family structure and children’s intimate relationship.

The effects of divorce for both boys and girls needs further research to compare the differences. There is a necessity of further research to differentiate whether or not divorce affects more boys than girls; and this are the gaps and tensions that this writer will be addressed in this proposed study. For example, Mustonen, et al., (2011) used data a longitudinal 16- year prospective follow-up between 1983 and 1999 to explore the effect of various family structures on children ages 8 to 16 relationship outcomes. The results showed on both measures of parental divorce in child hood and intimate relationships quality in adulthood, children from two-parent homes since birth, on average, significantly less achieved children from divorce homes, parents death and multiple transition homes by 82%.

1.3 Problem Statement

A child’s view of separation will be dictated by age and sexual orientation, and, in addition, the youngster’s history of anxiety and adapting. At the point when unpleasant occasions exceed accessible defensive elements, even the strongest tyke can create issues. A developing assortment of data proposes that sure components may make a few kids more at danger for badly adjusting than other youngsters. Some are unchangeable, and some existed before separation. Others apply impressive weights on children at the season of detach mentor separate, and still others impact the youngsters taking after separation.

Stress, unreliability issues, family and companions’ contention, family disregard, and financial hardship are issues kids experience from segregation. Separation is traumatic to tyke wellbeing because children and their parents need to manage the misfortune. Young men and young ladies bargain contrastingly with misfortunes. This examination is going to attempt and separate regardless of whether separation influences a bigger number of guys than females. The effects of divorce are entirely unsettling. Despite the fact that the gatherings that choose to break up their union may trust that it benefits them, it may not be beneficial for them. Separation has numerous effects to different substances. Its effects range from mental to money related. It likewise influences the kids who are constrained by another status startlingly. They need to live with one guardian rather than two folks. Exploration demonstrates that offspring of the gatherings who wish to break up their marriage are maybe a most exceedingly awful portion influenced groups.

It is unfortunate that divorce affects children throughout their lives. Noteworthy is the fact that children of divorced partners are more vulnerable to abuse. Parents provide social security for their children. However, in an instance where the parents live apart as they are divorced, the children do not get the parental love they should receive from their parents. Research indicates that such children are prone to drug and substance abuse particularly in the teenage due to the adolescent crisis. They exhibit severe cases of behavior flaws, cognitive and emotional challenges among other problems. Those who may not be able to handle such challenges may result in solitude and suicide among other anti-social behaviors.

1.4 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this quantitative, experimental, causal-comparative study is to examine males and females, high school students, in a suburban school in Connecticut for the year 2015-2016 school year, compared to inner-city high school students in the same academic year 2015-2016. Divorce affects children’s lives by leaving a negative connotation in childhood and in the later stages of their adult lives which make it difficult for them to develop intimate relationships with others. Marriage is declining. Marriage is not what it used to be. Society is the same but individuals are changing, and their view of marriage is also changing especially for individuals who have experience divorce themselves. Males and females deal with divorce differently and trying to discover what mediated role play a factor in divorce among both males and female will lay the foundation for ongoing debate.

The literature review will investigate tactics to control the best way to assist children as they manage and deal with the difficulty associated with their parents’ divorce. This study will tend to provide a better systematic meaning of the present study considering the affect divorce has on children and how to best view parental divorce as a primary source of stressors.

1.5 Research Questions

The following research questions guide this study:

R1) Will children whose parents have divorced experience emotional disturbance compared to those continuously married biological parents?

R2) Will children will be pressure to face the ramifications of their parents’ divorce by having emotional difficulties as they approach adulthood compared to children with continuously married biological parents?

R3) Will parental divorce be positively related to children’s developing intimate relationship?

1.6 Research Hypotheses

H1 Children whose parents divorce experience emotional disturbance compared to those whose parents are married continuously

H2 Children whose parents divorce have pressure to face the ramifications as they approach adulthood compared to those whose parents are continuously married

H3 Parental divorce relate negatively to children’s developing intimate relationship


1.7 Research Variables

The independent variable in this study will be divorce whereas the dependent variable will be the long-term effect on children.

1.8 Advancing Scientific Knowledge

The quantitative case study will advance knowledge in understanding differences between divorced and non-divorced factor. The extant research is relatively limited in investigating the effectiveness of divorce. Children that come from divorced home are traumatized and devastated from these experiences because divorce has a negative effect on children involved in the process. Wallerstein, (2000) statesthat a child that comes from divorce homes must deal with feelings of anguish, distress and lack of self-confidence issues that can become problematic later on in their adult lives.

There is currently a gap in the literature, concerning whether divorce affects more males than females. The study is minimal to the impact divorce has on children because there may be further issues of blended family, family and step-family issues, and remarriages. This literature review pays attention to divorce families, the process, transition and the impact it has on the children involved. Additional limitations contain a limited amount of time to complete the study and an extensive variation of literature. This research study will serve as a resource for divorced children who are interested in understanding some background information about divorce.

1.9 Significance of the Study

Separation happens in six stages: The passionate separation revolves around the crumbling’s issue marriage. This phase more often than not occurs over duration of time, which fluctuates from couple to couple. The positive sentiments of adoration and fondness are dislodged by expanding feelings of outrage, dissatisfaction, hurt, disdain, abhorrence, or scorn, and the observation that the positive emotions are gone until the end of time. The qualities that pulled in the couple to one another turn out to be less essential in the vicinity of these negative emotions. The legitimate separation depends on there a son for the separation. Regardless of the fact that “no-shortcoming” separation laws exist, one or both separating mates, as a rule, states reasons why the other is at issue. The law more often than not perceives contradictorily as the satisfactory purpose behind the separation. This period of the separation procedure includes the lawful documentation that the couple is no more hitched to one another. The financial separation manages cash and property.

For some separating couples, this is the most unpredictable period of separation. Feelings frequently run high concerning separating material merchandise aggregated amid the marriage. On the off chance that the couple can’t arrange a reasonable property and resource settlement, the court will command what it considers a reasonable conveyance to each of the separating persons. The co-parental separation manages authority, single guardian homes, and appearance. This is additionally an extremely passionate piece of the separating procedure. Customarily, moms were naturally given the care of their kids unless they were turned out to be unfit. Today, most authority choices are presented on a defense by-case premise, and the tyke or kids are set with the guardian regarded equipped forgiving the general best environment to them. It is regular for the non-custodial guardian to pay money related youngster bolster installments to the custodial guardian. Now and again, the court grants joint care in which both folks has a pretty much equivalent obligation in the bringing up of their kids.

The findings of the study may highlight how children are impacted by their parents divorced. Although it seems that divorce rates are unlikely to fall, it is important to single out some of the factors that contribute to therise in cases of divorce among couples to look for viable solutions to this menace. The impacts of divorce on the children, couples, and the society cannot be overlooked as they are serious. The government and other entities in authority should conduct aggressive campaigns aimed at helping citizens understand the risks of divorce to them, and their children. The campaigns ought to emphasize the advantages of an intact marriage in the long run. The government may also come up with strict laws to guide the process of divorce. This will ensure that only genuine couples file a divorce case. The lengthy process of a divorce may also discourage some from divorcing untimely. To achieve this, the law ought to demand that couples prove that it will be harmful to the children if the union continues.

1.10 Rationale for Methodology

The research objective is to use a quantitative research methodology to determine the effects divorce has on children. The method will consist of two groups: experimental and control. The population of interest would consist of children that have divorced parents. The main subjects of interest would be the children; consisting of elementary, middle, and high schools students. The experimental version of the study will include a larger number of participants and controls for males effects to prevent outliers and confounds. The experimental design will also use random assignment and pulls from the entire population of elementary, middle, and high school students available to the researchers, increasing the external and internal validity of the research.

The case study design was selected based on the fact that the main research goal is to help children deal and cope with their parents divorced. The outcome of this study is to show how divorce can have a negative relationship between parental divorce and children’s perspective by answering the research questions:

R1) Will children whose parents have divorced experience emotional disturbance compared to those continuously married biological parents?

R2) children will be coerced to face the repercussions of their parents’ divorce by having psychological difficulties as they approach adulthood compared to children with continuously married biological parents?

R3) Will parental divorce be positively related to children’s developing intimate relationship?

The quantitative research design was selected because quantitative research aims to rely primarily on the collection and analysis of numerical information that can be converted into numbers. The quantitative method seeks precise measurements and analysis of the target population of target concepts to answer the what, where, when, not just the “Why” that qualitative research focuses on. The quantitative research design is a good way of finalizing results and proving or disproving the assumption. The structure has not changed for many years, so is standard across many empirical fields and disciplines. The results of quantitative research can are seen as real and unbiased if properly designed by filtering out external factors. This study is the beginning of the research on the long-term effects divorce has on children. The study will use a bottom-up approach due to the environment and educational setting that is being observed. Creswell, (2009), states that quantitative study are essential for testing the results collected by a series of qualitative experiments, leading to a conclusive answer, and a narrowing down of possible directions for follow-up research to take. The procedure of the study includes advancement in the processes and reviews from the information gathered from the research question. The information on the research question will help analyzed relevant information from the data collected.

1.11 Nature of the Research Design forthe Study

The American family has experienced exceptional changes in the most recent five decades. There is currently a large number of family structures present in today’s general public including wedded, separated, cohabitating, stepfamilies, single, foster, same-sex couples and intergenerational families. By and by, marriage remains a pined for status in the public arena, with a significant part of the early research on family change utilizing stable wedded families as the reference bunch in systematic models, Decades of examination have been devoted to understandings the impact of parental separation on youngsters. The examination has found that youngsters who experienced parental separated are at danger for a mixed bag of unfavorable results (Amato, 2010; Cherlin et al., 1991; Lansford, 2009).

1.12 Definition of Terms

The following terminologies will be used operationally in this study.

1. Divorce-a judicial declaration dissolving a marriage in whole or in part especially one that releases the marriage from all matrimonial obligations (, 2015).

2 Transition- to make a change, conversion (Dictionary. com, 2015).

3 Co-parenting- the sharing of parental responsibility by the divorced parents of a child. Joint or shared custody of a child by divorced parents (Dictionary. com, 2015).

4 Custodial Parent- This will be used to refer to the parent who has either sole physical custody of the child or the parent who the child resides with for a majority of the time by the court. 5 Well-being- a good or satisfactory condition of existence; a state characterized by comfortable health, and happiness (Dictionary. com, 2015).

1.13 Assumption, Limitations, Delimitations

One can state that there is no effective way to measure and determined whether or not divorce affects more males and females. A child’s comprehension of divorce will in most cases be determined by age and gender, as well as the child’s record of anxiety and ways to deal with problems. When traumatic issues exceed preventive factors, a child can develop problems. Statistic proposes that particular influences may make some children more at risk for change than other children.

It is believed that behavior problems, depression, conflict within families, and school performance negatively impacted children who come from divorced. It is believed that divorce affects the changes in children’s everyday functioning, but there are other factors to consider. It can be is inferred that the literature is from a believable and authentic source. The study is limited because it’s hard to measure whether or not divorce affects more males than females. The literature review will focus on families that are in transition as the result of divorce and the impact it has on the wellbeing of the children involved. Even though there may be other factors of blended family, remarriage, and step-family issues, which hinders children from moving forward, the limitations include a diverse variation of literature and not enough time for this study.

This segment of the research will introduce the limitations and the delimitations in the research: Only one inner-city school and suburban school will be used in this study. There are other inner-city schools and suburban schools that may be compared to this research.

1.14 Summaryand Organization of the Remainder of the Study

This research gives an overview about how divorce impact children lives and reasons children may be unable to find trust, feel guilty by blaming themselves for the divorce, break-up, and view their parent’s separation or divorce in a complex way. Divorce is one of the modern day social evils that are unlikely to end anytime soon. In fact, it is a vice that a society ought to learn to cope with. Despite all the arguments put forward against divorce, no volume of facts can actually prevent the occurrence of divorce. Individuals are aware of their constitutional rights and are unlikely to stay in abusive marital unions for public image. Although the trend that the dissolution of marriage has taken is worrying, the situation is unlikely to be salvaged (Clarke-Stewart and Brentano, 2008). However, knowledge is power. The methodology in this study will be quantitative. Creswell, (2009), states that quantitative analysis utilizes discrete theoretical expectations; action plan; and methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation. Quantitative research is adaptable in nature, and it is the main reason this method was chosen to conduct this study. Human subjects will be used in this research. Questionnaires, surveys, interview and personal observation records will be employed to collect data. The Literature Review and the study’s Methodology follow in Chapter 2 and 3. Chapter 3 will describe the methodology, research design, and procedures for the investigation.












2.1 Introduction

Sun (cited in ValderValk et al., 2005) found that children that come from divorced homes and parents may have a weak sense of psychological well-being than those who grew up with intact families. There have been many studies on divorce and the numerous ways it affects children. Research also confirms that children of divorced parents may experience emotional problems such as loneliness and depression (Asetline and Vander Valk cited in Vander Valk et al., 2005). Divorce refers to the legal dissolution of a marital union of two parties that were once legally recognized as partners. Divorce is quite frequent in the modern times when compared to the ancient times. Thecase is worse in first world countries such as the United States of America where divorce rates are alarming.

In America, there is one separate more or less every 36 seconds*. That is about 2,400 separations for each day, 16,800 separations for every week and 876,000 divorces a year. The usual length of a marriage that finishes in separation is eight years. Individuals hold up a normal of three years after a separation to remarry (on the off chance that they remarry by any stretch of the imagination). The usual age group for couples experiencing their first divorce is 30 years of age. Research states that seventy-nine point six percent of custodial moms get bolster recompense while just 29.6 percent of custodial fathers get a bolster grant (Daly, 2003). Forty-six point nine percent of non-custodial moms thoroughly default on the bolster, while just 26.9 percent of non-custodial fathers default on backing. Around 1 percent of the aggregate numbers of presently wedded same-sex couples get separated every year, in examination to around 2 percent of straight wedded couples. (Note that the percent of couples that get separated in the end is 50 percent; however, one and only or two percent get separated in a particular year.)

On the off chance that your folks are joyfully hitched, your danger of separation abatements by 14 percent. Individuals who hold up to wed until they are beyond 25 years old are 24 percent less inclined to get separated. Living respectively before getting hitched can build the shot of getting separated by as much as 40 percent. In the event that you’ve gone to school, your danger of separation reductions by 13 percent. 2008 voter information demonstrates that “red” states (expresses that tend to vote Republican), have higher separation rates than “blue” states (shows that tend to vote Democrat). The Barna Research Group measured separation insights by religion. The group found that 29 percent of Baptists are separated (the most noteworthy for a US religious gathering), while just 21 percent of skeptics/rationalists were separated (the least).

The high rates of divorce have made the marriage institution quite unreliable. Many people question its validity because it does not last long as it used to last in the previous times. Some individuals indicate that they would not wish to get married as they have lost faith in the marriage institution. Many people, especially religious faithful cite infidelity as the main cause of divorce while others believe that the hard economic times have its share of contribution to marriage break-ups and eventually divorce. Although the Holy Scriptures detests divorce, it is unfortunate that the vice is still prevalent among modern day generations. Currently, few people are entering the marriage institution while many leave it untimely through a divorce. Others opt for cohabitation and single parenthood instead of getting married. Come-we-stay arrangements have become the new face of the marriage institution in the modern day. Many indicators signal a probable collapse of the marriage institution. Although it was one of the most valued institutions and family unit in the ancient times, it is sad that it is a shadow of its former self. Research indicates that divorce is not favorable to the children and even to the parties who decide to dissolve their union untimely. Divorce affects children in many different ways. The literature described emotional effects, behavioral and social, functioning, and stressors children of divorce may encounter in their home and this may later tumble over into their emotional, and everyday lives will be presented.

2.2 Background to the Problem

According to US Census Bureau, in the United States, analysts evaluate that 40%–50% of every single first marriage, and 60% of second relational unions, will end in separation. There are some understood elements that put individuals at higher danger of segregation: wedding at an early age, less training and wage, living respectively before marriage, a premarital pregnancy, no religious connection, originating from a separated family, and sentiments of unreliability (United States Census Bureau, 2013). The most widely recognized reasons individuals give for their separation are absence of responsibility, a lot of belligerence, disloyalty, wedding excessively youthful, unlikely desires, lack of balance in the relationship, absence of arrangement for marriage, and misuse. Some of these issues can be settled, and separation forestalled. Duty is having a long haul perspective of the marriage that helps us not get overpowered by the issues and difficulties normal. At the point when there is a high responsibility in a relationship, we feel more secure and are willing to give out more for the relationship to work well. Duty is of course a variable in why a few couples stay together and others separation. Separation is vital now and again, and it may even help to safeguard the ethical limits of marriage. In any case, folks have an obligation to do all that they sensibly can to keep up and repair a marriage, particularly when the explanations behind separation are not the most hazardous ones. Obstructions to leaving a marriage, for example, monetary stresses can keep relational unions together in the short run. Notwithstanding, unless there is a change in the relationship, in the long term, the hindrances are typically insufficient to keep a marriage together for the long haul.

The examination can give applicable certainties, yet inquire about alone can’t answer inquiries of good judgment. Most Americans (70%) trust that separate, as a rule, is an ethically worthy choice.88, and numerous vibe that separate is an individual, private matter and that it is their decision alone regardless of whether to separate. Lawfully, this is right. A few people may feel that a couple of months of contentious and frustrations legitimize their separation while different couples will stay together even through treachery and misuse. It is critical for the law to permit the alternative of separation yet it does not approve the law to choose the youngsters’ wellbeing. Separation secures and highlights the ethical limits around marriage. A few circumstances and practices unmistakably abuse those limits. People have the privilege to be physically and sincerely safe in a relationship. What’s more, society has the privilege to attempt to secure the ethical limits of marriage to safeguard the uprightness and even hallowed nature of such an essential organization as marriage. The stakes are considerably higher when youngsters are included because those kids have an enthusiasm for the marriage. Furthermore, society has an enthusiasm for the prosperity of the cutting edge.

2.3 Theoretical Foundations and Conceptual Framework

The study will adopt Structural-Strategic Theory developed by Jay Haley. According to the theory, as opposed to spending the session concentrating on past issues, he pinpoints present matters that need changing and afterward gives down to earth ventures to accomplishing those progressions. They expect to give and engage a brief treatment where the advisor coordinates the customers toward new conduct and collaborations.

The advocate looks at why challenges proceed. Specifically, what reason do they serve or what payoffs originate from unfortunate conduct. The guide additionally assesses the imperceptible system of their familial relationship, which portrays fundamental hypothesis, made by Salvador Minuchin. This incorporates principles and characteristics of connections between every part. As indicated by the hypothesis, settling clashes in a marriage incorporates objective setting, utilizing outside assets, and teaching so as to change the connections’ structure methods for acting in an unexpected way. This will make healthier couple and family co-operations.

The theory is relevant to the study in that if it is employed it will partially solve the problem of family conflicts and divorce at large.

2.4 Review of the Literature

Literature will be reviewed from the following sections:

2.4.1 Theory 1: Children Feelings and Behavior

2.4.2 Theory 2: Children Age and their Respond to Divorce

2.4.3 Theory 3: The Bond between Parent and Child



2.4.1 Theme 1: Children Feelings and Behavior

Using the National parental divorce expectations might mediate the relationship between parental divorces and associated with many risks factors. These risks factors are the parental loss, financial and economic loss, and stress in their lives, lack of parental involvement and competence, and exposure to parents’ conflict. In other words, do differences in parental expectations between divorced and non-divorced parents help explain differences in children’s poor intimate relationship? According to Amato and Simon (2005), parental divorce or separation may influence children negatively in many different ways, including behavior problem and difficulty as children adjust and transition from adolescent to adulthood and these are warning signs.

The more a child is included in their parental divorce, the more disorganization, dispiritedness, despondency, and unwaveringness confrontations he or she is prone to encounter and associates with every guardian before the separation. On the off chance that pre-separation associations with folks were individual and supported, the danger for post-separation issues is decreased. On the off chance that the questions with guardian youngster connections existed before the separation, those issues would likely turn out to be more terrible after the separation. Folks’ powerlessness to isolate their parts as guardian and life partner. Separating mates who can’t serenely settle on choices about their youngsters’ welfare and arrange issues identified with the kids put those children at expanded danger for issues. Nonstop open clash between mates. The more prominent the contention between the folks, the more prominent the danger for youngsters to encounter enthusiastic turmoil. The apparent loss of the non-custodial guardian. Unless additional consideration is taken by both parents to support the relationship between the non-custodial guardian and the youngster, a kid may feel misfortune and even deserting.

Regarding their parental or pending divorce, children may show frustration and anxiety by misbehaving, ignoring their parents request and being disruptive. According to Amanto and Keith (2005), the primary effects of divorce on children are found in areas of self-image, social associations, school, functioning, adjustment, self-concept, and social supports. There is other research that support children’s characteristics and performance, which are warning signs, mentioned previously. Smith (1999) states that children may try to hide their intense feelings of sadness and anxiety that may result in difficulty expressing feelings. Children affected by divorce may have problem talking and articulating their feelings, and this can sometimes make their friends and siblings, and friends to feel angry and uncomfortable

Smith (1999) states that how children react to their parental divorce varies based on their age. For example, younger, and less mature children act out and regress more than older children who are developmentally able of understanding what is happening in their family (Smith, 1999). Some children find it difficult to speak to their parents about how they are feeling and may seem uncomfortable talking about the divorce during this early stage. However, other children are worried about hurting their parents’ feelings and hide their emotions. Being honest can also be an issue if one parent has full custody and the other co-parenting.

Children from divorced families may not do well in school. They may be subjected to scorn by their fellow learners who live in fully functional families complete with both parents. Therefore, the rates of school dropouts are higher among children of divorced parents when compared to children from intact families. Life may also become quite challenging for children who are forced by divorce to live with one parent. A single parent may not always fend well for the children as it was the case when they had the two parents. Although some parents promise to take care of their children once they are divorced, they may withdraw their support later. Such children may lack school fees and other resources meant for their social welfare.

When one of the parents decides to remarry, the children may have to live with their stepparent. Step-parents may not always augur well with the children from the previous relationships. Hence, the children may have to live in a dysfunctional family built on hatred. If they do not receive proper guidance to cope with the step-parent, such children may live an emotionally drained life and may fall into crime, drug and substance abuse among other self-destructive behaviors.

Divorce also goes against the religious scriptures. When individuals file a divorce case against each other, they violate the holy teachings. It is imperative to note that religious scriptures dictate that a marital union should be a life-long commitment, and only death should part the partners. The scriptures urge the partners to remain active in their union at all times regardless of the situation. Turbulent times should not shake the union. Arguably, parting through a divorce is not encouraged in the holy books.

Divorce impacts negatively on the welfare of the two parties. Although they have to agree to a divorce, it has been found out that divorced individuals experience emotional problems. The psychological attachment to one’s partner makes it challenging to form relationships in future. They may end up lonely and emotionally drained in the long run. Some of them may lose their financial stability after divorce. Those who moved commercial joint ventures when they were married may lose their source of income once they are divorced. When children do not live with all their biological parents, they are likely to remain isolated in the society. Research indicates that teenagers raised by a single parent are often too aggressive. Similarly, they are more liable to divorce when compared to children raised by two biological parents. Some of them may lose faith in the marriage institution and may end up in single parenthood.

Female children are particularly affected by divorce. When they live with their mother in the absence of their father, such children may feel insecure and are vulnerable to abuse. Some of them may become hostile to the step-parent; thus, bringing problems in the union. The purpose of the study is to explore how divorce impacts children. The research objective is to communicate the detrimental effects divorce has on children. The methodology will consist of two groups: experimental and control. The population of interest would consist of children that have divorced parents. The main subjects of interest would be the children; consisting of elementary, middle, and high school students. The experimental version of the study will include a larger number of participants and controls for males effects to prevent outliers and confounds. The experimental design will also use random assignment and pulls from the entire population of elementary, middle, and high school students available to the researchers, increasing the external and internal validity of the study.



2.4.2 Theme 2: Children Age and their Respond to Divorce

Research states that one-third of divorces occur when children are under the age of five and this is the age groups that has difficulty verbalizing and expressing their feelings. According to Spruijt et al. (cited in VanderValk et al., 2005), girls tend to understand their emotions, while boys tend to act out emotions through externalized problem behavior. Many children are affected by divorce in many ways; however, children under five may suffer from specific reactions.

According to Smith, (1999), when a baby is mirroring their parents’ smiles or laughter, it is possible that children can mimic similar sadness and anxiety when their parents feel those emotions also. Research states that both boys and girls may find it challenging to focus in school because of the stressors at home, during middle childhood. For example, children may experience the lack-of-focus in the classroom, day dreaming, leaving their homework at the other parents’ home and forgetting their assignments.

It is a big responsibility for parents to keep track of their child’s homework, paperwork, due to the family being transition because permissions lips may go unapproved or lost in the movement for half a week in one household and part of the week with the other parent. Teenagers are a high-risk group during a family divorce.

According to Smith, (999), states that there are many feelings teens have in reaction to their parent divorce because they mourn the loss. Teenagers are liable because they are beginning to gain an understanding of the adult world and sometimes conflict in how they should show their emotions (Smith, 1999). A teenager is also surprised and in denial because they make believe that the divorce never happen, and their family will continue to function and remains intact. Unhappiness and loss are the emotions most likely to follow after the teen acknowledges that the separation is permanent in their family. When grief is too devastating to comprehend the result is sadness, loss, and loneliness.

The depression represents the loss of the two-parent home they are missing. Teenager gets depressed after realizing that their family is no longer intact. Depression is the sensation of loneliness and feeling of isolation from the world. When children feel they have failed to unite their parents, their feelings result in anger. Smith (1999) states that teenagers may also feel ineffective attacked, unloved, or insufficient as a consequence of the trauma of divorce. Some children experience anxiety, fear, and confusion, and they will eventually encounter feelings of relief and hope, but it takes time. Smith (1999), states that teens may face guilt as they may blame themselves for their parents’ decision to divorce. Children in time may realize that their anger, embarrassment, or confusion, may go away in time, and they have to accept the fact that they cannot change their parent’s marriage situation.

Parents tend to be co-parenting their children after confronting the challenges of divorce. For example, some parents may feel the need to carry on their parenting rights and responsibilities after their relationship has ended. The divorced parents emotional, financial, and social may still be associated with their marriage because these divorced couples will continue to be connected to one another because of their children. The well-being and security of both the divorced parents and their children will be a work in progress because divorced parents may interact differently over childrearing duties. The outcome of this study will reveal some of the advantages of parents that continue to work together for the well-being of their children after the divorce.

Although divorce is not desirable, it is sad that cases of divorce are exceptionally high in the modern society. It is one of the twenty-first-century malpractices that have startled many. It is slowly an acceptable norm as people have learned to accept the fact that divorce is here to stay. Many of them are quite pessimistic about the future of the marriage institution. With options such as single parenthood, come-we-stay, cohabitation and child adoption, marriage is becoming increasingly unnecessary. Besides, partners may opt for divorce in favor of either of the above options. Enough literature exists over the main causes of divorce. The research continues to develop as some of the causes emanate from emerging issues.

The rates of divorce are on the rise. Social science researchers indicate that there is a need to conduct research to determine the most common causes of divorce in the modern society. The high rates of divorce show that there are many causes of divorce in the modern society. Unfaithfulness is one of the main causes of divorce in the modern society. Currently, couples find it quite difficult to trust their partners. Cases of individuals cheating on their spouses are not rare. Some may keep more than one sexual partners despite the fact that they have legally wedded partners. Some have even found out that their spouses profess to same-sex relationships. Such instances raise misunderstandings in the union and may end up in divorce if the partners do not receive enough counseling.

Communication technology has also been identified as one of the causes of union break-ups and divorce in the long run. Some individuals are addicted to technology such that they have little if any time for their spouses. The rise of social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram among others have made many individuals addicts of these locations. The emergence of numerous dating sites has worsened the already fragile situation among married individuals. Arguably, individuals may hook up with lovers on the dating sites without the knowledge of their spouses. This has been blamed for poor communication and lack of time to each other.

In the modern society, it is quite difficult for one to trust their spouse. Trust has become a thing of the past. When one realizes that their partner has been cheating on them with either young or older people, they are too frustrated and are unwilling to give their unions a second chance. They may file a divorce case citing infidelity. Research indicates that social networking has been blamed for the rise in cases of dysfunctional marital unions, quarrels at home and divorce in severe cases.

A divorce is an option in which one can leave a marital union. Laws in many countries allow partners to file a divorce case should they cite irreconcilable differences. This has made cases of divorce rise as the legislation of the land allows couples to end their marital union legally. The legality and ease in which couples can end their union without breaching the law is also one of the causes of divorce.

Some couples seek a divorce as they got married for the wrong motives. This is mainly common for women who marry money and not their partner. When they run out of money for any reason, the women find it quite difficult to cope with such a life. Similarly, they may not be spouses to their partners as they never loved them in the first place. Some may get married to escape the financial challenges that confront them in a single life (Hetherington, Arasteh and National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U.S.), 1988). They have no time to understand and empathize with their spouse. Research indicates that divorce may also emanate from unmet expectations. When couples enter into a marital union, they have several expectations. When none or many of these expectations fail to materialize, many of them feel bored and may look for ways of walking out of the union legally.

2.4.3 Theme 3: The Bond between Parents and Child

The Parent-child relationships never end even after the divorce. There is a bond that continues to develop during the divorce, after the divorce and changes resulting in the family dynamics. Wallerstein (2005) states that the relationship between parents and their children will change during the divorce period and can immediately bring emotional and behavioral changes. The changes in children’s feelings and behaviors of children mirrored the relationship between changes in the parental role after the divorce. According to Granic and Sameroff (cited in Patterson et al., 2004), changes in maternal depression for females may impact parenting response and practices, and might precipitate a loss. For example, a parent experiencing depression may be allowed this emotion to take over their discipline style, and how they response to the children’s behavior and the amount of time and attention given to the children.

Just about everybody concurs that separate influences every one of the youngsters in the family sooner or later and to some degree. A few impacts of separation develop quickly taking after partition and some of this increment over the first years taking after separation and afterward decay; still other may rise later. Different variables lead to negative consequences for youngsters. For instance, kids are unavoidably loaded by more prominent obligations and feel less looked after. It is conceivable that when a marriage closes, particularly on the off chance that it closes in furious clash, folks can encounter a decrease in their profound affections for their kids and the degree to which they intentionally embrace obligations regarding the youngsters.

Another factor is that the non-custodial parent tends to disengage from his children over the years following a divorce. A healthy father-child relationship is essential for children’s long-term development.

A large portion of these transient impacts can antagonistically influence long haul improvement in that they develop after sometime. The force and lifespan of every issue is controlled by these qualities identified with constructive post-separation alteration: Parental capacity to determine post-separation strife and displeasure, capacity of the custodial guardian to effectively continue the child rearing part, position of the non-custodial guardian to keep up a commonly fulfilling association with the kid or kids, identity attributes of the youngster and the ability to create adapting skills, ability of the kid to discover and utilization emotionally supportive networks, lessened depressive or furious reactions by the tyke and the age and sex of the kid.

Offspring of separation has a tendency to wind up more preservationist ethically than their guardians. They additionally receive more conventional perspectives of how marriage and family should be. In the same 10-year subsequent study (Wallerstein, 1989), kids who balanced well had: A mother-tyke relationship portrayed by shared admiration, thought, and a mother who had redesigned her life and “had an existence.”Children living with their dad had a comparative association with their dad as depicted in 1 above. Father had set points of confinement on his expert advancements or he could have a relationship with his kids. A positive relationship with an arrangement of grandparents who stayed out of the parental clash and recognized and addressed children’ issues. A background marked by dependability in the post separate family game plans. Composed family units with guidelines and explicit desires were essential. Seen a decent, reliable, and positive grown-up couple relationship between no less than one guardian and another accomplice.

Depression in children and depression in mothers goes hand in hand. Effective parenting styles can improve once the parent becomes aware of the sadness and seeks treatment or professional help to get them back on track. Jeynes (2001) states that most children recuperate from divorce within two or three years following the process of the divorce. The stage of adjustment is swift on children who come from divorced homes. According to Jeynes (2001) children transition from divorced homes or come from divorced home experience psychological functioning that is similar to children from intact families.

Children who experience divorce have to deal with more traumatic situations and more challenges in their lives. These children also have difficulties establishing close intimate relationships with people in their lives. These are reasons that can lead to the negative stigma divorce has on children; because a child that comes from divorced families has to deal with poor self-worth, behavioral problems, and problems communicating with friends and family. There have been lots of studies based on this particular subject “divorce” and the negative consequences it has on the children who come from divorced home.

There are many external and internal influences that affect children from divorced homes. Dacey and Travers (cited in Dykeman, 2003), may reference to the many contributing factors that impact children who have experienced divorce. For example, the authors state that the age and gender of the children at the time of the divorce and the level of collaboration among the divorced parents tend to be issued. These factors tend to influence the emotional and mental health of the child. Children tend to isolate by not engaging in activities that they once had joy doing.

Children emotional state may impact interactions with their friends and family after experiencing the traumatic turmoil of divorce. Children may wish not to express their concerns due to feelings of numbness, shame, and blame. On the other hand, children may choose an adult or a friend they trust and can vent their feelings about the divorce without feeling guilty. Children might choose not to talk about their feelings, and this can be a sign of resilience or rebellion against their parents.

Children of divorced parents may also see a change in their everyday lives. According to Hargreaves (1991), children adjust more efficiently, learn successfully, and misbehave least when home and school are both consistent, predictable and proactive in meeting the child’s needs. Asignificant predictor of a child’s behavior may be a clue for parents and beneficial to their relationship because this is a chance for both parents to set their differences aside for the wellbeing of their child. Children who struggle with ongoing behavior problems may experience concerns related to the loss of their parents’ divorce.

Carlson (cited in Dykeman, 2003) found children who have experienced a recent divorce in their family may have more difficulty performing academically at school than children from intact families. For example, children who are struggling in school and having problems getting along with others might be a cry for help because children blame themselves for their parents’ divorce.

Children many have adverse behavioral changes after their parents’ divorce. Hargreaves (1991) states that these changes can present themselves in the lack of attention, do not care attitude, an increase in impatience, inattentiveness, and unhappiness. According to Wallerstein and Corbin (cited in Dykeman, 2003), when children experience divorce, they may also experience a significant impact upon their entire life experiences. Some children may experience long-lasting emotional effects into their adulthood that damage their ability to preserve relationships. The result of parental divorce shapes children emotionally and may impact self-esteem, future relationships, dating, and marriage (Simons et al., cited in Dykeman, 2003).

Mentorship programs would go a long way to helping couples who intend to get married understand that the marriage institution has its pitfalls. Hence, they should be ready to face and handle challenges that sprout in their union (Berner, 1992). The mentorship programs would also help couples who are facing challenges in their marriage receive advice on how they can revive their failing marital unions with their spouses. The government may also make the covenant marriage one of the choices as it binds the parties to the institution. Besides, the process of divorce for couples married under the covenant procedure is lengthy, and some of them may make a decision to drop the divorce suit altogether. Lastly, religious institutions ought to educate them assess understand that marriage is the best environment in which children may be nurtured (Peterson, 1989). For them to bring up their children well, they ought to remain married and not divorced.



2.5 Divorce from a Religious Perspective

Many religious doctrines condemn divorce. Christians believe that marriage was meant to last forever; thus, divorce is not an option for Christians. They even urge couples are experiencing problems in their marital unions to seek intervention from the religious figures to iron out the challenges in their union instead of opting for divorce (Guttmann, 1993). Religious books such as the Bible andthe Quran do not justify divorce. In fact, they discourage it in the strongest terms possible. Concerns have been raised over the decision that religious faithful should take if they are in abusive and dysfunctional marital unions. Some may opt to leave the union due to polygamy. However, the Holy Scriptures such as the Quran and the Bible allow the man to take more than one wife. No clear law guides the action of religious faithful who find themselves in such challenging situations in their marriage life. The Bible condemns adultery and labels it as the ground in which divorce may be allowed. However, it contradicts the command which urges Christians to forgive each other for all the wrongdoings.

2.6 The Global Situation

Divorce in the modern day has become a globally debated phenomenon. The cases of divorce rise every year. It is unfortunate that many who file divorce cases are the elite population. It is very rare to find a couple in the marginalized rural areas such as in third world countries file a divorce case. However, in developed countries, for instance the United States of America, divorce is a thorn in the flesh. Some couples may even enter into a marital union hoping to divorce later should they find the union boring (Chiribogaand Catron, 1992). ‘Divorced’ has even become a relationship status that some individuals use their profiles of their social media accounts. Cases of divorce are quite high in continents such as Europe when compared to some such as Africa. The case is attributed to the large population of literate people who are unaware of their constitution rights as spouses.

In the African continent, divorce rates are fairly low as divorce is taboo in some regions. Those who mainly divorce in these regions are elites who hold formal jobs and have a source of livelihood. On the other hand, in marginalized areas, divorce is unheard of. The case is attributed to very few disruptions and influences. For instance, some of them may not even have resources to access high-resolution communication devices (Wallerstein, Lewisand Blakeslee, 2000). Hence, they are unlikely to join dating and social media sites and hook up with people of the opposite sex. Notably, in some marginalized communities, infidelity is a serious crime. One who commits such a crime automatically becomes a social outcast. Hence, cases of infidelity are quite rare. Lastly, in Islamic countries, divorce rates are also low. Although polygamy is accepted, cases of divorce are quitter are.

2.7 Summary

Long haul Effects of Divorce Findings from a few exploration studies demonstrate that sure impacts of separation are entirely persevering notwithstanding when an extensive variety of pre-separation conditions is considered. Consider a synopsis’ portion articulations from a couple of these studies: Children can at times experience what may be known as the “sleeper impact”. They recuperate rather rapidly taking after the separation, but since of denied emotions at an intuitive level, sentiments about the separation may develop sooner or later further down the road. It is a deferred response. Proficient guides have demonstrated that a broad range of traumatic encounters of youth can be curbed in the intuitive. For instance, sexual misuse or physical abuse may be “overlooked” for various years and rise at some later point in adulthood. The same can be valid for the injury brought on by separation. At a 5-year postliminiary, one investigation of separated youngsters (Wallerstein, 1985) indicated the determination of resentment at the guardian who had started the divorce. The power of aching for the missing or inconsistently going to parent. The steadiness of youth’s wish to reconstitute the pre-separate crew. Moderate to serious clinical despondency in more than 33% of the first specimen.

Albeit most youthful grown-ups had touched base with the understanding that the separation had been an insightful choice, large portions of them stayed condemning of both folks for having committed the error of a misinformed marriage. They were particularly disparaging of their guardians for not having redressed the oversight before the kids were conceived. A hefty portion of these adolescents portrays themselves as having developed more grounded and freer as an outcome of their guardians’ separation. There was an ambivalent quality to their announcements. Physically, these members reported poorer physical wellbeing than youngsters from in-place families. Inwardly, they showed constant issues with the accompanying: Fears of disloyalty, deserting, misfortune, and dismissal. Rising nervousness in late high schoolers and mid-20s, emotions, and recollections about their guardians’ separation emerge with new power as they enter adulthood. Deep rooted powerlessness to theexperience of misfortune. Displeasure, hatred, and threatening vibe. A lessening in mental prosperity. Sadness in youthful adulthood. Low life fulfillment. Socially, the youngsters’ connections in later life were influenced as takes after: Divorcing folks evidently set the stage for kids’ poor connections. Decrease in the capacity to create and keep up high fellowships and dating relationships. Offspring of separation is more probable themselves to separate as grown-ups. Prior sex. Reprobate practices. Girls of separation are more prone to: wed and have youngster’s early Give conception before marriage separation apprehension of rehashing his or her guardians’ inability to keep up an adoring relationship. The trepidation of responsibility and closeness. Less trust in the future companion. The diminishment of hindrances toward separation as an answer for conjugal troubles. Lower financial status. In relationship to their guardians, grown-up offspring of divorce: Feel less warmth for folks. Have less contact with them. Take part in less between generational trades of help than do different grown-up

Although divorce is not recommended, it is wrong for someone to hold onto an abusive union for fear of the social stigma associated with divorce. Cases of women succumbing to domestic violence for fear of leaving an abusive marriage institution are not rare especially in rural areas where the level of illiteracy is exceptionally high. However, when a couple decides that they would want to end their union through a divorce, they should think about the impacts of dissolving their union to the children. They should also consider the age of children who they wish to alienate from their biological parents. Their misunderstanding should not affect the welfare of the children. Hence, they ought to agree on how they are going to raise the children once they are sure that they would like to get divorced.






3.1 Research Methodology

The research objective is to communicate the detrimental effects divorce has on children. The methodology will consist of two groups: experimental and control. The population of interest would consist of children that have divorced parents. The main subjects of interest would be the children; consisting of elementary, middle, and high school students. The experimental version of the study will include a larger number of participants and controls for males effects to prevent outliers and confounds. The experimental design will also use random assignment and pulls from the entire population of elementary, middle, and high school students available to the researchers, increasing the external and internal validity of the study.

3.2 Research Design

The research is a case study design. The case study will target only inner-city and suburban school in the Eastern part of the United States. The research design aligns with this elected methodology because the case study will only inner-city and suburban school in Eastern part of the United States. The phenomena in the research design are to identify coping strategies, educations and resources support in the Eastern part of the United States.

The methodology use in this study will be a quantitative case study. Human subjects will be used in this study. The data will be collected using questionnaires, surveys, interviews and observations. The author will create the tool use to collect the data, which will includes questionnaires, surveys, interviews, and observations. These documents will be used to determine effects divorce has on children. The records will identify coping strategies, insights, resources, children need after their parents divorced. Using questionnaire, surveys, interviews with the children will be helpful to clarify subject matter that will be revealed in thestudy. This research will use the quantitative method because using this approach will help the research advance smoothly. The study will look for influences and arguments by using questionnaires, surveys, interviews, and personal observations with the school-age children. The study will also look at the right responses and comments from the children of school age by addressing and answering the research question:

R1) Will children whose parents have divorced experience emotional disturbance compared to those continuously married biological parents?

R2) Will children will be forced to face the consequences of their parents’ divorce by having emotional difficulties as they approach adulthood compared to children with continuously married biological parents?

R3) Will parental divorce be positively related to children’s developing intimate relationship?

3.3 Target Population

Target population consists of items or people under consideration in any field or enquiry. The study will involve youths in the church and the church elders. The target population of this study will be drawn from 50 males and females (26 females; 24 males) will also report coming from intact families at the time of the data collection process.

3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques

Sampling is the process of selecting a sub set of cases in order to draw conclusions about the entire lot (Orodho, 2009). He asserts that in descriptive research 30% of the population may be required for consideration of the study where the population is small. The study will purposively select 50 males and females (26 females; 24 males) will also report coming from intact families at the time of the data collection process. Random sampling provides every sample of a given size an equal probability of being selected.

3.5 Sources of Data

The study will include elementary, middle and high school students that will include females and males. The population will be chosen from a random sample. Questionnaires and surveys will be administered to all students. The method that will be used in this study will be selective. On the other hand, “information on parental divorce will be obtained via structured question (Are your parents’ divorce? 1 =no, 2 = yes) in the first phase of the study. Those whose parents have died or whose information about parental divorce is incomplete will be excluded from the study. The goal is that a certain percentage of the population will report experiencing divorced; 50 males and females (26 females; 24 males) will also report coming from intact families at the time of the data collection process. The format of the instruments will be open-ended questions and the students will be given complete instructions and directions before completing the document. The case study design will be used to gather research using these sources of data. A copy of the instruments will be included as part of the appendix of the research proposal once that instrument is developed. More details will be provided once the document has been created and obtained.

3.6 Validity and Reliability of the Study Instruments

According to Mugenda and Mugenda (2003), validity is the degree to which results obtained from the analysis of the data actually represent the phenomenon under study. To ascertain the content and criterion validity of the instrument, the researcher will seek the assistance of other professionals in the field. The instruments of data collection will be tested to verify both internal and external validity. The researcher will check whether they will produce results that will not interfere with an intervening variable.

Nacmias and Nachmias (2006), state that an instrument is reliable when it can measure a variable accurately and consistently and obtain the same results under the same conditions over time. The idea behind reliability is that any significant result must be more than a one-off finding and be inherently repeatable. Other researchers must be able to perform exactly the same experiment under the same conditions and degenerate the same results. This will reinforce the findings and ensure that the wider scientific community will accept the hypothesis. The researcher will use the test retest method at an interval of one week. The researcher will use the test retest method to ascertain Reliability, which will help in removing ambiguity, and hence the reliability of items will be ensured.Piloting that was carried out ensured validity and reliability of the instruments.

3.7 Data Collection Procedures

Two groups will be involved: an experimental group and control groups. Each group will randomly have assign females and males to either an experimental condition or a control condition. The population of interest would consist of children of divorced parents. The main subjects of interest would be the children. To employ a random sample from the target population, I will need to know who my target population is, which would be children of divorce parents and children with continuously married biological parents. To employ a random sample, first I must compile a comprehensive and accurate list of my targeted audience. This list is known as the sample frame. I also need to know approximately how many subjects are required for the study. The list would include all members of the targeted audience. The next thing to do would be to draw a random sample from that list. I would need to know which names to select from the list. The names would be chosen at random such as placing the names in a box and drawing the names from the box. The data will be collected via structured interviews, surveys, questionnaires: face to face and observation.

3.8 Data Analysis Procedures

The data analysis approach will be to analyze the quantitative data collected for the study. The relevant data to be collected that provides the answer to the research question will be to do a content analysis of the effect of divorce on children. The research will be based on a quantitative study, and the data will be categorized by themes that have been identified in the content analysis process. The analysis for this study will use questionnaires, surveys, interviews, and observations to determine topics. Data will be hand-coded. The frequency of the responses will be used to identify central themes; descriptive statistics will be used to summarize the data. A frequency analysis of each factor in the Archival Data of the effect divorce have on children will be conducted. The objective is to use the sample to identify themes that can be adapted to best practices for other inner-city and suburban school within the United States of America.


3.9 Ethical Considerations

The ethical considerations will go through the Institutional Review Board process. The identities of the participants in the study and data will be protected because no names will be used, and all interviews will be kept confidential. A document of Informed Consent will be disseminated to all those participating in the research study with a request for signature confirming consent prior to such participation. All participants in this study will be told in details about the study and the nature of the study.

Participants will get an explanation of their rights and what is expected of them before committing to the study. Once the participants agree to participate in the research study, they will be asked to sign document consisting their participation in the study. All information and procedures will be explained along with an informed consent to ensure legal and ethical standards are probably carried out. All interviews will be addressed with sensitivity to the interviewee so as not to cause physical or emotional harm or undue stress. All participants will be the lecture about the research study not imposing or inflicting and actual or psychological harm upon them. They will be a talk about their safety, and treated respectfully.

All research will be conducted in an objective manner, and differences of opinion will be given fair, unbiased consideration. The research study will be directed and not be influenced by personal feelings or opinions in considering and representing facts to all participants. All the participants will be given an opportunity to share their feelings and concerns about the research study without being ridiculed. Research, such as surveys or observations, will be conducted under the assumption that findings will be kept anonymous. Subjects will be advised if research results will be anonymous or not. Choice of interviewees will be based on what would most benefit objective research. Interviews will be taped not to depend on memory or misinterpretation when recording responses. The right of the participant to withdraw from the study at any time.















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Appendix A

Variables, Phenomena, and Data Analysis

Table 1

Quantitative Studies

Research Questions (Minimum 2 – add or delete as needed) Phenomenon (problem) Being Studied Sources of Data Analysis Plan
1. What coping strategies, information, education are offer to support children dealing with divorce?




Phenomenon: Identifying coping strategies, resources, to help school children deal with the impact of divorce. · Questionnaire

· Survey

· Observations

· Interviews with students

· Research study notes

· Data will be collected, organized and prepared for evaluation

· Coding will generate arguments used to address research questions about the effect of divorce on children, long term.

2. What coping strategies, information, education are offer to support children dealing with divorce? Phenomenon: Identifying the strategies, information and support to divorced children · Questionnaire

· Survey

· Observation

· Interviews with students Research study notes

· Data will be collected, organized and prepared for evaluation

· Coding will generate arguments used to address the research questions.

3. How do these coping strategies, information to support children dealing with divorce? Phenomenon: Identifying coping strategies, information to divorced children · Questionnaire

· Survey

· Observation

· Interviews with students

· Research study notes

· Data will be collected, organized and prepared for evaluation

· Coding will generate arguments used to address the research questions.

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Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


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What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

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