# Principles, Materials, Systems and Operation

solar cells – the solar resources
solve the questions attached, just avoid plagiarism. the deadline is in three days

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Solar Cells – Principles, Materials, Systems and
Operation
Assignment 3
Q1. Use the PVLighthouse solar spectrum calculator to generate the global spectral irradiance on a latitude-tilt fixed collector in Ottawa on 1 July 2020 at solar mean times of 12h00, 19h00, and 19h30 (times are given in hours and minutes, not decimal). (a) Plot the three spectra on a single graph. Is the overall reduction in the intensity consistent with what you would expect? Address this question quantitatively, using the simplest model possible. (b) Normalize each spectrum by its maximum and replot the spectra. Qualitatively describe what you observe. (c) For the 19h00 and 19h30 calculations, quantitatively describe the degree to which each scattering and absorption mechanism contributes to the spectral reshaping, relative to the noon spectrum. HINT: look at the atmospheric transmission plots (data also in the download Excel file). Which mechanisms dominate, and in what fashion?
Q2. A two-axis tracker is located at 44°N latitude. It tracks the sun. The sun path diagram is located to the right. Assume clear sky conditions. Answer the following questions. (a) At what time and date is the collector azimuth angle equal to 30° and the tilt angle equal to 70°? (b) To the nearest 30 minutes, how many hours of daylight are there for the date found in (a)? (c) Sketch the daily insolation (in W/m2) striking the 2-axis tracker on this date (i.e., plot insolation vs time), noting sunrise, noon, and sunset on the time axis. Give a value for the maximum insolation. (d) On the plot you sketched above, also sketch the daily insolation for a panel with a 44°N fixed tilt on this date. Specifically, show whether its maximum is less than, greater than, or equal to the tracker maximum, and briefly explain why.
Q3. Suppose you are concerned about a tall thin tree located 100 m from a proposed PV site. You notice that an hour before solar noon on June 21 it casts a 30 m shadow directly toward your site. Your latitude is 32°N. (a) How tall is the tree? (b) What is its azimuth angle with respect to your site? (c) Using an appropriate sun path diagram (go here to generate it), roughly what are the first and last days of the year when the shadow will land on the site?
Q4. If your local longitude is 6° east of the local time meridian, and the local time is 11.30 am, in how many minutes will solar noon occur? Consider only the local longitude. Neglect any “day of year” (i.e., equation of time) correction.
Q5. The following table shows TMY data (W/m2) for Denver (latitude 39.8°N) on July 1 (n = 182, δ = 23.12°). Calculate the expected irradiance on the following collector surfaces. (a) South-facing, fixed 40o tilt, reflectance 0.2, solar noon. (b) Horizontal, north‐south (HNS) single-axis tracker, reflectance 0.2, at 11:00 am solar time. (c) Two-axis tracker, reflectance 0.2, at solar noon.
Q6. Use the NSRDB Viewer to access the PSM v3.0.1 (Multi
Year PSM Global Horizontal Irradiance) dataset. Locate
Las Vegas. Go to “Download DAta” and select “Point”, placing the marker precisely on the Las Vegas legend. In the data download wizard, select PSM v3 5 minute, select year 2019 and all attributes. In options, select interval 5 minutes. Download the data. Consider the data of 31 July. (a) Open the file and study its contents. Note that the first two rows provide location-specific information, data types (including their units, if any), cloud types, and data assessment flags. The third row gives the actual column headings. On a single figure, plot the DHI, DNI, and GHI. (b) Verify equation (3.4-31) in module 3 by calculating GHI from the given DNI and DHI, and then plotting the given and calculated GHI values versus altitude angle. (c) Define a clearness index K by the ratio of the GHI to the Clearsky GHI. Plot this clearness index versus altitude angle. Can you associate values of the clearness index with specific cloud types? If so, which? Indicate the cloud types that persist more than 30 minutes by highlighting the plot at these times, labeling each highlight by its cloud type.

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