Solar Water Pasteurization
The very life that we live depends on safe drinking water. Without food, we can live for up to 2 months, but without water, we’re going to die 3 days from now. Contaminated water for drinking is a global recession, and things are getting worse, not better. The effect is staggering in underdeveloped countries, resulting in unnecessary misery and death, where the Fighting for survival is still hard.
Abstract: One of the simplest and cheapest methods for providing potable water in remote areas is solar pasteurization. It depends on the sun’s energy to heat the water to the temperature of pasteurization. To destroy bacteria found in water, most people assume that water needs to be boiled. However, to destroy these microorganisms, the pasteurization temperature is necessary. The method is like the traditional pasteurization process of milk, except that the sun and the use of low-cost materials are the source of energy. Solar pasteurization can be used for cooking, in addition to supplying potable water. In remote high-altitude sunny areas where electricity is not available, solar pasteurization finds its application. There is no simple availability of firewood in these areas. This chapter offers some of the basics of solar pasteurization, presents materials that can be used for the manufacture of pasteurization systems that are easy to find, and compares the output of units that are commercial and easy to produce.
Introduction: Each day, we as humans need water in some way to live a sustainable healthy lifestyle. It is one of the most important if not the most crucial things for humans to survive. The very life that we live depends on safe drinking water. Without food, we can live for up to 2 months, but without water, we’re going to die 3 days from now. Contaminated water for drinking is a global recession, and things are getting worse, not better. Each year about 780 million people in the world do not have access to a clean water source. As well as an estimated 801,000 children younger than 5 years of age perish from diarrhea each year, mostly in developing countries. This amounts to 11% of the 7.6 million deaths of children under the age of five and means that about 2,200 children are dying every day as a result of diarrheal diseases (CDC.gov). It has been said that solar energy can be an effective way of cleaning contaminated drinking water. Imagine if there were a way for people in need of clean water, to be able to purify water they find by themselves, with ease. This method is what we call Solar water pasteurization. The process of water pasteurization begins with heating the water to a high enough temperature, so that the UV light destroys the formation of DNA linkages in microorganisms, thereby preventing them from reproducing and thus rendering them harmless. Pasteurization of water is a water heating mechanism for the removal of germs, viruses and parasites that cause human disease. After heating water above 65 deg C or 149 deg F for 6 minutes, water pasteurization occurs. The World Health Organization says solar disinfection in clear bottles by the combined action of UV radiation, as well as thermal disinfection (pasteurization) in opaque vessels with sunlight from reflectors can be one of the most promising and accessible technologies for household water treatment (CTC-N.org). In our project, the goal is to successfully attempt the process of water pasteurization. We would like to know if its truly possible to clean enough water to consume safely without any fear of contamination.
Method: It is a plastic tube heated, pinched and sealed at both ends and with a special form of soybean fat at one end that melts at 154 F. The tube itself is buoyant, but a washer is weighted to sink to the bottom (coolest) portion of the bath, with the fat in the tube’s high end. If the fat is detected at any point after the low end of the tube, the water has reached the correct temperature, even though the water may have cooled down since then. Without recontaminating the bath, a nylon string makes it simple to pull the tube out. By flipping it over and sliding the string the other direction, the tube is reused.
Solar Water Pasteurization Project Plan
Solar Water Pasteurizers combine to clean microbiologically polluted water two time-tested technologies: pasteurization, and heating of solar water. Solar water Pasteurizers are used to destroy water-borne pathogens and make water healthy by using the heat of the sun.
It is a common misconception that for disinfection water must be boiled. Currently, water like milk, juices, wine, and beer, can be pasteurized. Independent studies from laboratories confirm that our Solar Water Pasteurized are 99.999 percent effective in destroying microbiological contaminants, including both bacteria, viruses, and disease-causing bacteria about protozoa. Solar Water Pasteurizers are more effective in purifying water than chlorine, UV radiation, household filters or slow sand filters.
Solar Water Pasteurizers are a simple, effective, long-term solution to contaminated water. drinking water crisis. Our mission is to enhance the well-being, wellbeing, and efficiency of life for millions of people in the world.
The effect of providing healthy potable water is enormous:
Lives are saved
Illnesses are decreased dramatically
Health is drastically enhanced
Improving economic conditions
Improvement of educational opportunities
Solar Water Pasteurizers offer many benefits:
There are no on-going costs after the initial purchase,
Electricity or fuel is not needed and can be used anywhere the sun shines.
No spare parts or supplies are needed.
Low per-capita rate, less than $0.50 annually per citizen
No cost of service
Automatic processing. There is no need for a trained technician.
Practically no maintenance
Strong reliability for a long-term , sustainable operation
Life expectancy of 15 + years
Saves time or money when fuel is collected or bought in order to boil water
Reduces air pollution and deforestation where wood is used to boil water
Scope of Service
The object of this conceptual proposal is to define the range of services which may be available provided by Safe Water Systems. We also aim to show how our technology for solar water pasteurization offers a cost-effective solution to the contaminated drinking water crisis.
The proposed project has 4 phases:
1. Project Design
2. Project Implementation
3. Health and Sanitation Education
4. Project Monitoring and Evaluation
In our project, the goal is to successfully pasteurize enough water for a person to drink and consume for at least 2-3 days. Pasteurizing water is an easy, fuel and energy conserving way of cleaning water from any potential contaminants that could cause harm to a person. A few of the most widely known waterborne pathogens such as worms, Protozoa, E coli, Salmonella typhi, as well as the Hepatitis A virus can be killed by heating water to around 149 degrees Fahrenheit for about six minutes. Once it is done, water should be safe to consume. There are many different waterborne pathogens that can cause major harm to the human body but, with the simple process of Solar Water Pasteurization someone could help themselves and others.
For things to go smoothly in our project, we are going to need a couple of important items. First off, we will need a black bottle, can, or jar that you would like to store your water in. Preferably black so that it will attract the most heat and sunlight as possible. Second, we are going to need a thermometer of some type so that we can examine the temperatures of the water as needed. For people who cannot come up with a thermometer, another common way to know when your water is at a high enough temp, is by putting vegetable or soybean wax in a plastic tube that is dipped in the water. These types of waxes are known to melt around 150-160 degrees Fahrenheit so if you were to go down that route you could be for sure that your water is at the right temp. After these steps are taken, another thing we will do to ensure the bottle or container attracts the most sunlight as possible would be to place the object on and around a black or reflective surface that can catch as much light and heat as possible. Furthermore, we will wait until the temperatures reach around 150-160 degrees and then test the water for any contaminants. As expected, when the water reaches these specific temperatures of heat, the water should be clean and safe enough to consume. This process isnt as effective as boiling water like a lot of people can do, but not everyone has the ability or resources to do such a thing.
Large scale use of our solar pasteurization demonstration could be a good way to help impoverished areas have access to clean drinking water. As you can see from the materials listed above, solar pasteurization is a very cost-effective way to create safe drinking water. Another great aspect of solar pasteurization is that there is no fuel source needed to pasteurize the water, so there are no harmful chemicals going into the atmosphere. We believe that solar pasteurization on a larger scale could be a great, environmentally friendly option to get clean water to people who lack access to it.
In the following project, the goal I hope to pursue, is to know if the process of water pasteurization is safe, as well as if it is a reliable, continuous option for a person to have clean drinking water.
The process of water pasteurization seems very simple, but without a few key components it can be much harder to achieve successfully. First things first, you must create some sort of solar oven, that can attract heat easily in order to warm the water you wish to drink. An image of an easily designed one is below.
Items that could be used would be anything from a metal box/sheet, rubber, hard plastic boxes or containers (preferably black to attract heat), and finally either a clean pot, glass bottle, or some type of metal container that can hold enough water to get you by. Again, whatever is holding your water should be clean and must be able to fit inside your solar oven. The next item that is very important for the sake of pasteurizing water, is a WAPI device. Which is listed below.
WAPI stands for Water Pasteurization Indicator. These little devices contain soybean wax and little weights stringed to each end so that it can be submerged in the water you are trying to pasteurize. Once the water reaches about 150 degrees Fahrenheit (70 degrees Celsius) the wax being held in the tube will melt and make its way to the other end of the tube. After about 6 minutes of the wax being melted, the water should be pasteurized, and clean to drink. The WAPI devices are also reusable up to thirty or so times which is a good thing.
The table below is an estimation of the amount of water you can pasteurize at a time, how long it will take, how long it can last you, as well as the preferred time you want the water to sit while at peak temp, for safe drinking.
Amount of water Amount of time to pasteurize How long it will last Amount of time needed to stay at peak temp. Temp needed to pasteurize safely
1 gallon 3-6 hours 1-2 Days 4 minutes 160 deg. F.
5 gallons 1 day (24 hours) 5-7 days 1 minute 145-160 deg. F
10 gallons 2 days (48 hours) 10-14 days 2 minutes 150-160 deg F.
Again, these numbers are just close estimations based off past research and personal testing. With further in person testing in the near future we will know the results to these assumptions by the time this project is due for grading.
Although the small difficulties, its obvious solar water pasteurization can be an easy, effective way to have and continue to have a reliable water resource.
To help us contextualize about the use of solar water pasteurization (i.e. Keeping the water jar in the sun and raising the temperature up to 165 which is 99.99% effective in destroying microbiological contaminants ) in different places and what do you think about this system ? we are going to ask a few question.
1. Have you heard about solar water pasteurization before?
2. In the last 12 months, have you used a solar water pasteurization system? If yes: The solar water pasteurization improves the overall quality of water and makes it drinkable (Agree – Neutral – Disagree) If no: I like the idea of testing solar water pasteurization at home. (Agree-Neutral-Disagree)
3. Research has shown that Solar water pasteurization is 99.99% effective in destroying microbiological contaminants, including both bacteria, viruses and disease-causing bacteria and it is more economical than any other system. I believe that the under developing country or developing country should invest to promote the solar water pasteurization (Agree-Neutral-Disagree)
4. Do you agree solar water pasteurization offers more economical solution than any other method to make water drinkable (Agree- Neutral- Disagree)?
5. Do you believe this method eliminates disease caused by contaminated drinking water? If yes: It will increase life expectancy of people of about 15+ years (Agree-Neutral-Disagree), If no: More research must be done before any conclusion (Agree-Neutral-Disagree)
6. Do you believe this method reduces air pollution and deforestation where wood is used to boil water (Agree-Neutral-Disagree)?
Ciochetti, D. A., and Metcalf, R. H., Pasteurization of Naturally Contaminated Water with Solar Energy, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 47:223-228, 1984.
Recent Advances in Devices for the Heat Pasteurization of Drinking Water in the Developing
World, Dale Andreatta, P. E., Derek T. Yegian, Lloyd Connelly, and Robert H. Metcalf,
Proceedings of the 29th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, 1994.
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