Salmonella Typhi Research Analysis Paper

• INTRODUCTION- An introduction to a scientific paper should normally not exceed 400 words. It should cover the following subjects:
1) Give a brief resume of what is the state of present knowledge about the microbe to be investigated, quoting the appropriate references.
2) Identify gaps in existing knowledge. What do we still NOT know about your subject. You can read the discussion section in research papers to get this information.
3) Explain the reasoning for the investigation. (e.g. “Why should we care about this?”)

• BODY- (feel free to provide pictures in this section, but do not forget to reference the sources).
1) Describe the scenario that was provided. Be sure to include the scenarionumber.
2) Discuss your approach of how you figured out the microbe and disease. (This should include discussion on which steps you took in your research that led you to your specific disease and microbe? What challenges did you run into during your research? Did you get to a point where it was hard to decide between your organism and another? Why? What was the defining factor that lead you to your choice?)

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1) Description of microorganism (includes gram reaction, arrangement, cell morphology, colony morphology, etc).
2) Describe growth and metabolism (Ex. Fermentative organism)
3) Discuss the organism’s usual habitat (Ex. Skin)
4) Provide other important information related to the microbe (its importance to medical and/or industrial microbiology, etc).

• Remember you need to follow the scientific nomenclature and the name of MO should be italicized

• Microbe Physiology:
Discuss the all physiology tests we will cover soon in labmodule and explain how your organism would test for each (For each and every test describe the purpose, reagents used (if any), and possible outcomes, and then provide your organisms expected result).

➢ Remember you need to include all physiology tests.

1) What disease is being described in the clue that was given?
2) Provide Portals of Entry & Exit for organism.
3) What are the virulence factors associated with the microbe?
4) Provide descriptive epidemiology for disease (Incidence and prevalence rates, personsmost affected, etc.)
5) Describe signs and symptoms of disease
5) Prevention and Treatment of disease (be sure to discuss how drugs work, for example some drugs affect the cell wall of bacteria and kill the bacteria by creating holes on the cell wall).

• CONCLUSION– This section should summarize the main findings of your research paper.
1) Should draw reasoned conclusions
2) Should compare these conclusions with those drawn by other workers
3) Should indicate the practical implications of the findings
4) Should indicate what further research is needed.


• Citations of references throughout the paper are required in APA style & please do not depend on quotations as most of the paper should be in your own words. I will be checking for plagiarism. Do not copy and paste the information that you find.

Please be sure to use scientifically peer reviewed articles from at least 3 different sources.

Your references should be listed on a separate page at the end of your paper.

• Extra Information:

➢ If you are having trouble finding your organism tests results, then please dig more deeply! If you have fully exhausted all resources and you still cannot find the result, please be sure to provide an explanation of the steps you took to figure out the test results to justify how hard you searched even though you did not end up with the specific test result in the end. Its science… and sometimes things are not straightforward nor complete!

When youdescribethemicroorganism,you need to include gram reaction, arrangement, cell morphology and colonymorphology both.

Many students forget to include the colony morphology.

➢ Physiology (Biochemical) Tests:

You have to include all physiology tests. Each of the tests must have a short explanation, and your organism’s tests resultmust be provided. The videos that I will post, can help you with the physiology protocols. There are countless resources to help you locate the information that you need. These include, but are not limited to,,, Bergey’s Manual (there are some online copies in pdf form), and countless others. More than likely you will need to access several different sources to get the information that you need, and you may also have to access scientific articles as well. The following is an example of what is expected for the synopsis a test, using Yersinia pestis as the organism.

Example of physiology test: Catalase

Catalase is an enzyme that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide, which is a toxic form of oxygen, into water and gaseous oxygen (Leboffe & Pierce, 2016). If an organism contains catalase itwill be able to survive in the presence of oxygen. This test can be performed by adding several drops of hydrogen peroxide into a freshly grown slant. It is important to cover the test as soon as the hydrogen peroxide is added to prevent splattering from a positive result. The break down of hydrogen peroxide is evidenced by bubbles, which is the release of oxygen, thus designating the organism as catalase positive (Leboffe & Pierce, 2016). If there are no bubbles, this indicates the absence of catalase and the organism is considered catalase negative. According to (2020), Yersinia pestis is catalase positive.

➢ As a part of the paper you are asked to provide knowledge on what already exists, as well as gaps in the literature. The term “gaps” in the literature is referring to those things that we still do not know, or what remains unclear about the organism. This information is best located in the discussion section of scientific journal articles. They usually say what information is still needed on the particular organism or disease. If you cannot find anything directly about the organism, you may discuss the gaps in understanding your disease as well.

– State of the art/background information to introduce the project (you have done this in the

Introduction of HW1)

– Hypothesis (or hypotheses, if more than one)

– Materials & Methods (overall methodology) – one slide with a flow chart to show what has been

done in your project (you cannot use Dr. Pirino’s flowchart)

– Results & Discussion of results – make sure to relate results and their significance back to original

research question/problem/goals/hypothesis.

– This part should focus on the results of the overall experiment (you can show photos of vials

and plates), with particular emphasis on the analysis of the mutations found by Breseq (Lab

8B). It is your choice to discuss the results of your team only or include some of the results

obtained by other teams, if they help with the conclusion (class results can be found in the

presentations of Lab8B).

– explains results in sufficient detail so that audience can understand the experiment, including controls and data trends

-summarizes experimental evidence (key results) used to draw conclusions

-Future directions – if any

– Take home message – what do you want your audience to take home from your presentation?

– Acknowledgements – people outside of your team who help you on this project (IA, instructor,

other students in the class)

2. If you use pictures that are not yours (especially when giving background), add a citation. Citations are

added exactly as you added to the narrative in the homework (Last name, et al., year, if more than 2

authors; Last name and last name, year; if 2 authors). If some images are from Google, add the website

link where that image is found as a reference. Use a small font for citations.

3. Remember, you are telling a story. It must be engaging – you want to convince the audience that it is

your project and results are interesting. If you don’t show enthusiasm, how could we be? Thus,

– Practice the presentation with your group ahead of time

– Do not read from the slides or from flash cards – who knows your project more than you? If you read, it

shows that you don’t have confidence and you don’t know your project

– Keep your video on and face the audience (I know we are through Zoom, but try anyway) – it shows

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