SECURITY ARCHITECTURE & ENGINEERING-PRESENTATION NOTES

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SYSTEMS DESIGN and ENGINEERING
(SECURITY ARCHITECTURE & ENGINEERING – PART 2)

Presented by

Frank M. Carpency, P.E., CPP, PSP, CSC

Carpency and Associates, LLC

13425 Scottish Autumn Lane

Gaithersburg, MD 20878-3909

fmc@carpsecurity.com

www.carpsecurity.com

 

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The Security Program

  • Policy
  • Procedures
  • People
  • Equipment

A security system without a security program is useless!

Document your security program and use the document as a sales tool!

 

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The Security Triangle

 

Respond

Detect

Delay

 

 

The total time to Detect, Delay and Respond

must be less than the adversary’s task time!

 

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Security Terms/Concepts/Philosophies

  • Protection of Assets – People, Facilities, Equipment, Information, Raw Materials, Finished Products.
  • Defense-in-Depth – Adversary must avoid or defeat a number of protective devices in sequence. Design approach using multiple barriers, technologies and/or controls.
  • Balanced Protection – No matter how an adversary attempts to accomplish the goal, effective elements of the security system will be encountered.

 

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Security Terms/Concepts/Philosophies

  • Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) – A branch of situational crime prevention which has as its basic premise that the physical environment can be changed or managed to produce behavioral effects that will reduce the incidence and fear of crime, thereby improving in the quality of life, and enhancing profitability for business. CPTED has as one of its primary aims to reduce the opportunity for specific crimes to occur. Where CPTED differs from traditional target hardening strategies is that the techniques employed seek to use environmental factors to affect the perceptions of all users of a given space – addressing not only the opportunity for the crime but also perceptions of fear on the part of those who may otherwise be victims.

 

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Project Stages

Basis of Design – Study and Report Phase (SAE – Part 1)

  • Preliminary Design (SAE – Part 2)
  • Design Development (SAE – Part 2)
  • Final Design (SAE – Part 2)

Bidding, Negotiation & Procurement (SAE – Part 3)

Construction (SAE – Part 3)

Operational (SAE – Part 3)

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Study & Report Phase

  • Develop Functional Requirements

– What needs to be protected: people, information,

facility/equipment, raw materials, finished products

– Group assets into low, medium & high value

categories

– Tied to security policy and procedures

  • Determine Threat & Risk

– Analyze local crime statistics and FBI threat data

– Group threat & risk into low, medium & high

probability categories (use metrics if possible)

– Determine cost tradeoffs

– Transfer risk if possible

 

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Study & Report Phase (cont’d)

  • Assess Vulnerabilities

– Think like a vandal, criminal, terrorist, etc.

  • Develop Risk Mitigation Strategies

– Recommend effective countermeasures

  • Prioritize Recommendations
  • Estimate Cost for Each Recommendation

 

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Replace or Upgrade?

  • Determine age and condition of existing equipment

– What equipment can be reused and can it be integrated with

new equipment?

  • What are the current maintenance costs?

– How much time is now spent repairing system?

– Are spare parts available?

  • Determine the impact of code compliance

– ADA, NFPA and local codes

  • What other facility or organizational changes are planned for the near and long-term?
  • Share the cost

– Enroll other organizations

 

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SAE Part 2 Project Stages

  • Preliminary Design (design requirements tied to recognized standards such as UL, IEEE, ANSI, IES, Federal Government Standards)
  • Design Development
  • Final Design

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PRELIMINARY DESIGN

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Getting Started

  • Assign Responsibilities
  • Gather Data – Site Walkdowns, Existing Facility Drawings, and Existing Security Documents
  • Communicate with Key People – Conduct Interviews
  • Establish Functional Requirements (measure against security policy & procedures)
  • Define Tasks & Develop Realistic Project Scheduling
  • Prepare Report with Recommendations, Alternatives Initial Cost Estimate, and Concept Drawings

Establish Design Requirements (formal document tied to recognized standards)

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Getting the Facts

  • Note Grading & Ground Cover
  • Note Existing Equipment Types
  • Note Placement of Barriers, Fences, Access Points & Possible Breaches
  • Document Equipment Locations & Coverage

– Intrusion Detection

– CCTV

– Access Control

– Ancillary Systems (lighting, power, raceways, etc.)

  • Determine Condition of Existing Equipment

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Getting the Facts (cont’d)

  • Conduct Light Level Readings
  • Note Type, Condition and Length of Wire & Cable
  • Confirm Electrical Raceway Location, Condition & Fill
  • Confirm Power Source Location, Type & Capacity
  • Consider Weather Conditions (Year Round)
  • Be Aware of Facility Operational Nuances
  • Obtain Existing Drawings & Documentation

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Design Requirements

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Poor Sensor Application

  • Mounted on non-protected side of door
  • Easily removable covers

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Design Approach

  • Review Functional Requirements
  • Develop Design Requirements (design basis)
  • Develop Design Documentation

Preliminary Drawings (Site Plans & Floor Plan Backgrounds)

Outline Specifications (Select Type)

Design Analysis & Calculations

Total Project Cost Estimate

  • Present Design Concept to Client
  • Establish/Confirm Total Project Scope

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Sample Design Requirements

  • Delay Time Required to Protect Asset (factor in time for communication and assessment, plus time to deploy and position responders)
  • Speed and Weight of Vehicle and Amount of Explosives
  • Wind Loading on Structures (i.e. fences, camera towers)
  • Minimum Lighting Levels (human and electronic)
  • Light-to-Dark Ratio (ideally 4:1)
  • Lighting Type (halogen, metal halide, HPS, etc.)
  • Minimum CCTV Resolution (at target)
  • IDS Probability of Detection (ideally 1.0)
  • IDS Level of Confidence (typically 90-95%)
  • Power Requirements (normal, emergency, UPS)

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Design Requirements

  • IRE Units (video 1 volt p/p or 140 IRE Units)
  • IPS (images per second)
  • Real Time (30-60 IPS) vs. Real Motion (15-20 IPS)
  • Footcandles vs. Lux (1 fc = approximately 10 lux)
  • Full-video (100 IRE units) vs. Usable Video (20-50 IRE Units) 100 IRE is DVD quality
  • CIF (Common Intermediate Format; 1, 2, 3, or 4 CIF)
  • JPEG, Wavelet, MPEG-4
  • File Size (in Kb)
  • CRI (color rendering index)
  • SNR (signal-to-noise ratio)
  • f-stop (f 1.0 to f 16 to closed)
  • Sensitivity
  • Re-strike Time
  • Reflection Factor (camera test percentage used: 75% made in USA, 89.9% made overseas)
  • RG59/U, RG6/U, RG11/U, UTP, Cat -5e, multimode
  • RAID (redundant array of independent discs)

What the heck are these things and who cares?

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Design Considerations

  • Incorporate CPTED Principles
  • Think Integration From the Start
  • Address Operational Issues
  • Incorporate Human Factors

– Hardware

– Software

– Transition Planning

– Maintenance

– Training

  • Anticipate Change

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Human Factors & Ergonomics

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Security Console Ergonomics

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Door, Gate & Turnstile Control

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Personnel Search Area

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Engineered Sensor Application

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Triple Stacked Microwave

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Microwave Bounce Plate

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Microwave Junction Box

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Fixed & PTZ CCTV Cameras

 

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COST ESTIMATING

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The Rule of Ascending Cost

  • Procedures $
  • Passive Barriers $$
  • Active Barriers $$$
  • Electronics $$$$
  • Personnel $$$$$

The key to cost control is selecting the proper mix!

 

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Why a Cost Estimate?

  • Project Evaluation/Approval

Choosing between multiple options

Estimating Return on Investment

  • Project Planning

Initiate accumulation of funds

Live within your means

  • Validation of Bids

Establish competitive range

Establish ceiling

Make sure your consultant knows your budget!

 

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Cost Components

  • Engineering & Design

In-House

Outside Consultant

  • Hardware (bill of materials plus spares)
  • Software (including documentation and licenses)
  • Installation (labor, equipment rental, permits & miscellaneous materials)
  • Construction Supervision (inspection & testing)

Use a Work Breakdown Structure for Labor Costs!

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Cost Components (cont’d)

  • Hidden Costs (security support, temporary operational changes)
  • Other Costs

taxes (state & local)

overhead (15%)

profit (10%)

bonding (1-2%)

contingency (5%)

inflation (AR 415-17, “Cost Growth Indices”)

  • Continuing Costs (warranty, maintenance, training & alarm monitoring)

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Levels of Estimates

  • Concept/Planning Stage (35% Design)

Rule of thumb estimates

Vendor/supplier estimates

Large contingencies (20% to 30%)

  • Intermediate Stage (65% Design)

Drawing take-offs

Vendor estimates/quotes

Moderate contingency (10% to 15%)

  • Final Design (100%)

Refined drawing take-offs

Vendor quotations (equipment & labor)

Minimal contingency (5%)

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Conceptual Estimates

  • Based on Unit Prices
  • “Ballpark” – Budgetary Estimates

“Means Electrical Cost Data” R.S. Means Company, Inc. 100 Construction Plaza P.O. Box 800 Kingston, MA 02364-0800

(Good for estimating conduit, cable and associated labor, not good for estimating security equipment and specialty applications, including labor)

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Detailed Estimates

  • Identify & Group by Subsystems (stand-alone or supporting systems)
  • Develop a Bill of Materials (unit & quantity pricing)
  • Establish Material Prices (concrete, rebar, boxes)
  • Formulate Work Crews/Productivity/Rates
  • Identify Required Equipment and Rental Rates (trenching, scaffolds)
  • Combine with Bill of Materials (set up a spreadsheet and/or database)
  • Maintain contingency as a separate line item, do not build contingency into each item

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Pitfalls

  • Incorrect or Improper Quantities
  • Not including all cost components (design, inflation, terminations, compensatory security measures)
  • Price Increases (especially from vendors)
  • Fixed Quantities (spools of cable)
  • Ongoing or Near Term Site Changes
  • Believing What You Hear Instead of Gathering Facts

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Cost Estimating Summary

  • Use Current, Actual Cost Data/Quotes Wherever Possible
  • Industry Averages Are Useful at All Stages
  • Allow/Expect Differences at Bid Time
  • Use Spreadsheet Programs
  • Update Cost Estimate at all Design Submittal Stages (35%, 65%, 100%)

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DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

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Design Development

  • Prepare Equipment Location Drawings
  • Determine Generic Equipment Type

Based on:

Functional Requirements

Compatibility With Other Sub-Systems

  • Prepare Block or Riser Diagrams
  • Research Equipment Vendors
  • Select Final Equipment Type
  • Develop Preliminary Bill of Materials
  • Develop Equipment/System Specification(s)
  • Update the Cost Estimate

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Equipment Location (Floor Plan)

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Riser Diagram

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Block Diagram

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CCTV Location & Coverage

 

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Console Layout

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Design Development (cont’d)

  • Select Specific Equipment

– Based on Design Requirements

  • Prepare Specifications (CSI or other format)
  • Conduct Bid Evaluations

– Conformance to Specification

– Ease of Installation

– Maintainability

– MTTF & MTTR

– Vendor Experience, Documentation, Support & Warranty

– Cost

– Make Award Based on Best Value

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MINIMIZING COST

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Minimizing Cost

  • Let the security professionals do their jobs
  • Money spent in design will return many times over in installation cost savings (minimizes rework & change orders)
  • Consider life-cycle issues – design for maintenance
  • Implement Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles
  • Reuse conduit and cable and other equipment (such as CCTV lenses) where practicable
  • Use existing LAN where practicable (possible bandwidth issues)

 

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Minimizing Cost (cont’d)

  • Use multi-technology, multi-function access cards
  • Pre-qualify bidders; consider weighted criteria
  • Prepare a specification with material takeoffs and requiring unit pricing for equipment, material and labor
  • Institute a design freeze at the 65% submittal (changes are a budget buster)
  • Establish a single-point of responsibility through the installer/contractor

 

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Minimizing Cost (cont’d)

  • Conduct a thorough system burn-in and factory acceptance test
  • Resolve all software, firmware & hardware issues, and open items prior to shipment
  • Conduct thorough site acceptance testing
  • Obtain comprehensive operator, administrator, & maintenance training, and documentation
  • Develop realistic scheduling
  • Obtain thorough as-built documentation

Communicate, document and revalidate requirements!

 

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FINAL DESIGN

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Final Design

  • Review Vendor Submittals
  • Prepare Final Drawings

– Interconnection Wiring Diagrams

– Conduit & Cable Lists

– Installation Details

  • Finalize Bill of Materials
  • Prepare or Review Installation Specification

– Detailed Installation Instructions

– Acceptance Test Procedures

– Construction Schedule

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Final Design (cont’d)

  • Revalidate Conformance to the Requirements
  • Prepare Final Cost Estimate
  • Issue Design for Client Review
  • Revise as Necessary
  • Issue for Construction

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Fencing & Grading Details

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Grading & Ground Cover

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Equipment Mounting Details

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Equipment Rack Arrangement

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CCTV Junction Box Assembly

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CCTV Junction Box Wiring Diagram

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CCTV Field Wiring Diagram

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CCTV Junction Box

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Other Design Documentation

  • System Descriptions (how it works)
  • Transition Plan (existing system to new system)
  • Factory Acceptance Test Plan and Results
  • Site Equipment Test Baseline Data and Results
  • System Acceptance Test Plan and Results

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Testing

  • Factory Acceptance Test

– Integrator to develop test plan, Engineer to review and

approve plan, Engineer and Owner to witness test.

– Test after system burn-in and do not ship until all

deficiencies have been corrected.

  • Site Equipment Test

– Installer to develop test data sheets (to record

settings) with signoffs for each piece of equipment.

  • System Acceptance Test

– Functional and performance test based on the FAT.

Engineer/Owner to witness and signoff on each test.

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Training

  • Who Needs It?

– Console Operators

– System Administrators

– Security Supervisors

– Maintenance Personnel (hardware and software)

– Employees (awareness/user interface)

  • Planning

– Initial (hands-on instruction, hard copy, interactive

CD ROM)

– Follow-on (retraining, new employees, software

updates, equipment changes, operational changes)

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SPECIFICATIONS

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Specifications

  • Format

– Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) MasterFormat

– AIA MasterSpec

– Client/Industry Specific (Design Requirements as outline)

  • Content

– Functional

– Procurement

  • Evaluation Factors

– Weighted Percentage (split technical from cost evaluation)

– Includes: technical compliance to specification, past

experience, documentation, personnel, workload, project

management, warranty, follow-on support, etc.

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CSI Format Specification Structure

  • Bidding Requirements (invitation, instructions, information, bid form, bid bond)
  • Contract Forms (agreement, performance bond, payment bond, certificates)
  • Contractor Conditions (general, supplementary)
  • Specification Drawings Addenda
  • Contract Modifications

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  • GENERAL

 

  • Related Work
  • Description
  • Submittals (define exactly and use a formal

schedule)

  • Definitions
  • Standards

 

  • PRODUCTS or EQUIPMENT or SYSTEM

 

  • Functional Requirements
  • Performance Requirements
  • Recommended Suppliers

CSI Division Structure

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  • EXECUTION

 

  • Installation
  • Coordination with Others
  • Testing (sometimes not well defined)
  • Training (often not well defined)
  • Maintenance (base year plus option years)
  • Warranty (2- years minimum, initiate at

system acceptance)

  • Spare Parts (often overlooked)

CSI Division Structure (cont’d)

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CSI Facility Services Division 26 Electrical

  • 26 05 00 Common Materials and Methods

Cables, Conductors, Raceways, Static UPS, Grounding, lightning and surge protection, etc.

  • 26 50 00 Lighting

26 51 00 Interior Lighting

26 52 00 Emergency Lighting

26 55 00 Special Purpose Lighting

26 55 53 Security Lighting

26 56 00 Exterior Lighting

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CSI Facility Services Division 27 Communications

  • 27 40 00 Audio/Visual Communications
  • 27 10 00 Structured Cabling
  • 27 20 00 Data Communications
  • 27 30 00 Voice Communications
  • 27 40 00 Audio-Visual Communications
  • 27 50 00 Distributed Communications and Monitoring Systems

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CSI Facility Services Division 28 Electronic Safety and Security

  • 28 00 00 Electronic Safety and Security

28 01 00 Operation and Maintenance of Electronic Safety and Security

28 05 00 Common Work Results for Electronic Safety and Security

28 06 00 Schedules for Electronic Safety and Security

28 08 00 Commissioning of Electronic Safety and Security

28 13 00 Access Control

28 16 00 Intrusion Detection

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CSI Facility Services Division 28 Electronic Safety and Security (Cont’d)

  • 28 20 00 Electronic Surveillance

28 23 00 Video Surveillance

28 26 00 Electronic Personal Protection Systems

  • 28 30 00 Electronic Detection and Alarm

28 31 00 Fire Detection and Alarm

28 32 00 Radiation Detection and Alarm

28 33 00 Fuel-Gas Detection and Alarm

28 34 00 Fuel-Oil Detection and Alarm

28 35 00 Refrigerant Detection and Alarm

  • 28 40 00 Electronic Monitoring and Control

28 46 00 Electronic Detention Monitoring and Control Systems

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The Four Absolutes of Quality

  • Definition of Quality

– Conformance to Requirements

  • System of Quality

– Prevention of Defects

  • Personal Performance Standard

– Commitment to Excellence – Zero Defects

  • Measure of Quality

– Customer Satisfaction (make sure you know

who your customer is!)

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The design process described can be characterized as:

  • An Engineering Process
  • A Quality Process
  • A Risk Management Process
  • A Business Process

The process assures that you get what you paid for!

 

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Summary

  • Use a structured approach to design – implement “the process”
  • Define the requirements
  • Gather sufficient, meaningful data
  • Plan the project
  • Develop a realistic budget and schedule
  • Pay attention to detail
  • Revalidate the requirements at all submittal stages and at the system acceptance test
  • Communicate among all team members

 

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Contact Information

 

Frank M. Carpency, P.E., CPP, PSP, CSC

Carpency and Associates, LLC

13425 Scottish Autumn Lane

Gaithersburg, MD 20878-3909

301-560-1069

fmc@carpsecurity.com

www.carpsecurity.com

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