Study Guide for Anthropology

TEXTBOOK LINK: https://pressbooks-dev.oer.hawaii.edu/explorations…

Directions for reading questions: You must use at least three (3) of the suggested key terms. In your answer define each key term in a separate sentence. About 4-8 sentences per reading questions.

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  1. What does the genetic code (DNA) do in regard to cell reproduction? Describe both the functions of mitosis and meiosis. (lecture and Ch. 3)
    1. The function of mitosis is to produce diploid somatic cells. What does diploid mean? What are somatic cells?
    2. The function of mitosis is to produce haploid gametes. What does “haploid” mean? What are gametes?
    3. What are the two functions of the genetic code? Replication and protein synthesis.

Key terms from “molecular Biology and Genetics” lectures and Ch. 3 in Explorations: Mitosis, somatic cells, diploid, meiosis, haploid, gametes, chromosomes, homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids, genetic recombination, alleles, genotype, phenotype, dominant alleles, recessive alleles, codominance, ABO blood types, Rh+/-, and karyotype.

  1. What is the difference between genetic adaptations and functional adaptations? What is one example of a human genetic adaptation and one example of a human functional adaption? Note: In the textbook Explorations, genetic adaptations are called simply “adaptations” and functional adaptations are called “adjustments” (Fitzpatrick 2019, 519-542).

    Key terms for “Human Variation” lectures and Ch. 14 in Explorations: H Homeostasis, stressors, genetic adaptations, functional adaptations, adjustments, melanin, melanocytes, epidermis, dermis, folate (folic acid) depletion, Bergmann’s Rule, Allen’s Rule, Gloger’s Rule, allostatic load, Tay-Sachs disease, sickle cell disease, lactase persistence, convergent evolution, allostasis, homeothermic, vasodilation, hypothermia, vasoconstriction, vasodilation, and hypoxia.

  2. What causes evolutionary change, in other words, what are the four forces of evolution? (see “Evolution” lecture before Quiz #1)

Key terms for “Four Forces of Evolution” lectures and Ch. 4 in Explorations: Modern synthesis, mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, inbreeding, founder effect, natural selection, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), adaptive radiation, speciation, directional selection, balanced selection, disruptive selection, sexual selection, microevolution, macroevolution, and speciation.

Lectures and Ch. 3 Questions (Shook 2019, 55 -101):

  1. What are two types of nucleic acids? (p. 59)
  1. Proteins made out of what kinds of molecules? (p.59)
  1. What are molecules and the four types of molecules? (p.60)
  1. What are the two types of cellular organisms? (p. 61)
  1. What are two types of prokaryotic organisms? (p. 61)
  1. What are three types of single-celled eukaryotic organisms? (p. 62)
  2. Eukaryotic organisms possess membranes that surround their DNA and other functional parts called organelles. In which organelle is DNA located in eukaryotic organisms? (p. 62)
  1. What is a cell’s cytoplasm? (p. 63)
  1. What does the mitochondrion organelle do in living organisms? (p. 64)
  1. What is ATP and where is it produced in living organisms? (p. 64)
  1. What is mtDNA in living organisms? (p. 64)
  1. What are the functions for the following cell structures found in eukaryotic organisms: Cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondrion, ribosome, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
  1. What does DNA do in living organisms? (p. 67)
  1. What are the four types of DNA nucleotides?
  1. What are the two base pairs of DNA? (p.68)
  1. About how many DNA base pairs are there in humans? (p.68)
  1. What is a chromosome? (p.68) How may chromosomes are in the humans typically? (p.69) How many pairs do humans have? (p.69)
  1. What are chromosomes made out of (p.69)
  1. What are the parts of each chromatid? (p.69)
  1. What are somatic cells? (p.73)
  1. Why are somatic cells called “diploid “cells? (p.73)
  1. What cellular process produces two identical somatic diploid cells? (Hint: mitosis, meiosis, or protein synthesis?) (p.73)
  1. What are gametes? (p.73)
  1. What cellular process produces four unique gamete haploid cells? (Hint: mitosis, meiosis, or protein synthesis?) (p.73)
  1. What are proteins made up of? (p. 75)
  1. What are examples of different types of proteins in the human body? (p. 75) (For example, what do immunoglobulins do? What does blood hemoglobin do?)
  1. How many types of amino acids are there? (p. 75)
  1. What cellular process produces proteins? (Hint: mitosis, meiosis, or protein synthesis?) (p. 75)
  1. What are the two main steps of protein synthesis? (p.75)
  1. What are the two base pairs of RNA? (p.75)
  1. Which DNA nucleotide does RNA’s uracil replace? (p.75)
  1. What is a gene? (p.75)
  1. What are introns and exons in gene segments? (p.76)
  1. What are three nucleotides, in a gene segment that codes for a protein, called? (p.77)
  1. What happens during the translation phase of protein synthesis? (p.77)
     It is the process whereby DNA is translated into mRNA and is transported outside of nucleus into the cytoplasm, where it is joined to and read by a ribosome organelle.
  1. What happens during the transcription phase of protein synthesis? (p.77)
     It is the process when mRNA, joined to a ribosome organelle, transcribes its codons into amino acid molecules in a growing polypeptide chain (make a protein)  See my lecture, the textbook is unclear )
  1. The study of traits and diseases that are controlled by a single gene is commonly referred to as _________________ ? (p.81)
  1. What is a phenotype? (p.81)
  1. What is a genotype? (p.81)
  1. What are alleles on a pair of chromosomes? (p.82)
  1. What are heterozygous chromosomes? (p.82)
  1. What are homozygous chromosomes? (p.82)
  1. What is a recessive trait? How many alleles on a pair of homologous chromosomes does it take to code for a recessive trait? (p.82)
  1. How many alleles on a pair of homologous chromosomes does it take to code for a dominant trait? (p.82)
  1. What are three examples of genetic diseases based on Mendelian traits? (p.83)
  1. What are the four major blood types? (p. 84 + lecture PDF)
  1. What are blood cell surface antigens? (p. 84)
  1. What are ABO blood type antigens? (p. 84)
  1. What are antibodies? (p. 84)
  1. For example, if a person has AO blood genotype, what is their blood type (phenotype)? (p. 84)
  1. If a man with OO blood genotype, has children with a woman with AA blood type, what is the probability that their child would have blood type A?  Draw a Punnett square to figure out the likely percentage of children they would have with blood type A. (p. 84 + lecture PDF)
  1. If a man with OB blood genotype, has children with a woman with AO blood type, what is the probability that their child would have blood type O?  Draw a Punnett square to figure out the likely percentage of children they would have with blood type O. (p. 84 + lecture PDF)
  1. What is a blood type Rh-factor? (p. 85 + lecture PDF)
  1. _____________ is a diagram that shows the genotypes of both parents and the possible genotypes of their offspring in order to predict their offspring’s phenotypes is called a ___________ Square.
  2. Genetically simple traits determined by alleles at a single locus (coding for a single gene) on a pair of chromosomes is known as ______________ inheritance. (Hint: Discovered by Gregor Mendel in mid-1800s by breading pea plants)
  1. A ____________gene refers to an allele that is expressed in an organism’s phenotype even if only one copy is present and simultaneously masks the effects of another allele, if another one is present, is said to be _____________ (Hint: dominant, codominant or recessive?)
  2. A ____________gene refers to an allele that is expressed in an organism’s phenotype only if two copies of it are present but is masked if there is only one copy and/or the dominant allele is present, is said to be _____________ (Hint: dominant, codominant or recessive?) An example is blood type O.
  3. A ____________gene refers to an allele in which both types are dominant so together they code for a new phenotypic trait like Blood type AB. Both A and B are ________ with each other. (Hint: dominant, codominant or recessive?)
  4. Heterozygous alleles refer to __________forms of the gene on both alleles (Hint: different or identical?)
  5. What are autosomal chromosomes? (p. 86 + lecture PDF)
  1. Is hair color a polygenic or a Mendelian trait? (p.88)
  1. How many chromosomes are there in the human genome? (p.88)
  1. What is epigenetics? (p.89)
  1. What is DNA methylation? (p.89)

Lectures and Chapter 4 “Forces of Evolution” 4 (Shook 2019, 109-142) sample quiz questions:

  1. About when did the first living organisms originate on Earth? (p.109)
  1. What is the “Modern Synthesis” in evolutionary biology? (p.113)
  1. What are alleles? (p.114)
  1. What is the genetic or biological definition of “evolution”? (p.114)
  1. The original source of new genetic material and genetic variation found in every living thing? (Hint: It’s one of the forces of evolution) (p. 115)
  1. ___________ is a random change in a gene or chromosome, creating a new trait that may be advantageous, deleterious, or neutral in its effects on the organism. (p. 115)
  1. Only mutations that occur in _________ (somatic cells or gametes?), will be passed on to the offspring and future generations. (p. 115).
  1. A “point mutation” is ___________ ? (p. 116)
  1. ____________ is random change in allele frequency from one generation to the next, with greater effect in small populations, known as the “founder effect”. (p. 121).
  1. What activities contribute to the increase of antibiotic-resistant bacteria? (p.123)
  1. What is a genetic founder effect and what is an example? (p.124)
  1. What is a danger of inbreeding? (p. 124)
  1. _____________ in humans is called admixture, which is the exchange of alleles between two populations. (p.125)
  1. _____________ in plants is called hybridization, which is the exchange of alleles between two populations. (p.125)
  1. ___________ is when individuals with preferential characteristics in a particular environment will survive and reproduce at a higher rate in comparison to individuals that do not possess these traits. (p. 127)
  1. There are different types of natural selection (directional, balancing, and disruptive). ___________ selection is when environmental pressures are favoring one phenotype over the other. (p.128)
  1. There are different types of natural selection (directional, balancing, and disruptive). ___________ selection is when environmental pressures are favor against the extremes of a trait and favors an intermediate phenotype. (p.128)
  2. There are different types of natural selection (directional, balancing, and disruptive). ___________ selection is the opposite of balancing selection and it is when it favors both extremes of a phenotype like grizzly bears and polar bears (p.128)
  3. What kind of genetic disorder is sickle cell anemia? (p. 129)
  4. Why is it advantageous to be heterozygous for sickle cell anemia if you live in a place where malaria is common? (p. 129)
  5. What is sexual selection? (p. 130)
  6. Why do peahens prefer peacocks with large colorful tails? (p. 130)
  7. What is the purpose of the Hardy-Weinberg formula? (p. 132)
  8. What is the difference between non-random mating and random mating? (p. 132)
  9. What is the difference between microevolution and macroevolution? (p. 132)
  10. What is speciation? (p. 133)
  11. How does speciation happen with adaptive radiation? (p. 133)
  12. In the Hardy-Weinberg formula, what does p2 symbolize? (p. 135)
  13. In the Hardy-Weinberg formula, what does q2 symbolize? (p. 135)
  14. In the Hardy-Weinberg formula, what does 2pq symbolize? (p. 135)

Lectures (“Human Variation Part 1 and Part 2) and Chapter 14 “Human Variation” (Fitzpatrick 2019, 519-542) sample questions:

  1. Adaptations of the body’s tissues to physical activity (mechanical forces), as explained by Wolf’s Law for example, are called
  1. Melanin production is advantageous because it provides protection from __________ ?
  1. Vasoconstriction is an example of a human physiological or functional adaptation to:
  1. Vasodilation is an example of a human physiological or functional adaptation to:
  1. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its
  2. Physical anthropologists call the timing and details of human growth and development events from conception to death
  1. The baby teeth that begin to erupt during infancy are called
  1. Fertilization to the twelfth week of embryo development and organ development occurs during the
  1. The period when the infant shifts from consuming only milk provided by the mother to consuming external foods is called
  1. The five- to ten-year period after puberty is called
  1. Biological changes that occur during an individual’s lifetime, increasing the individual’s fitness in the given environment and are reversible and not heritable are called
  1. Adaptations that occur at the population level via natural selection with biological changes that are inherited and are not reversible are called
  1. A disease caused by insufficient solar radiation that is needed to produce vitamin D required for calcium production in bones and teeth is called
  1. The principle that bone is placed in the direction of functional demand, that is, bone develops where needed and recedes where it is not needed is called
  1. The principle that smaller or thinner bodies are adapted to hot environments, and larger or wider bodies are adapted to cold environments is called
  1. The principle that an animal’s limb lengths are heat-related with longer limbs adapted to hot environments and shorter limbs adapted to cold environments is called
  1. A disease caused by too much exposure to UV radiation, which reduces the amount of folate needed for protein synthesis and repair of DNA mutations, and that can cause birth defects is called
  1. The definition of homeostasis is
  1. The principle that smaller or thinner bodies are adapted to hot environments, and larger or wider bodies are adapted to cold environments is called
  1. The principle that an animal’s limb lengths are heat-related with longer limbs adapted to hot environments and shorter limbs adapted to cold environments is called
  1. A disease caused by too much exposure to UV radiation, which reduces the amount of folate needed for protein synthesis and repair of DNA mutations, and that can cause birth defects is called

TERMS BELOW ARE BASED ON LECTURE “HUMAN VARIATION PART 2” ONLY:

  1. Infant or childcare that is performed by any group member other than the mother or genetic father and thus is distinguished from parental care is by an
  1. The loss of bone mass often due to age, causing the bones to become porous, brittle, and easily fractured

20. The principle that bone is placed in the direction of functional demand, that is, bone develops where needed and recedes where it is not needed is called

  1. In humans the three factors that determine biological sex, which develop at different times during the prenatal period, are:
  1. An individual who is born with a combination of male and female genitalia, gonads, and/or chromosomes is called:
  2. __________ are gamete producing organs, which are testes in males and ovaries in females.
  3. Having higher than normal levels of androgens like testosterone, which give athletes a competitive advantage is called being
  4. What we can learn by measuring the body and examining bones:
  5. Adults (usually) have _________ bones in their skeleton.
  6. Newborn infants have _________ bones in their skeleton.
  7. _________ describes the measurements of the human body.
  8. _________ describes the measurements of human bones.
  9. __________ is the field of study dedicated to the study of the bones of the human skeleton.
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