The American Psychological Association is actually a professional association for psychology. The guidelines were therefore initially developed for this field. However, due to their clarity and practicability, the guidelines quickly found their way into other disciplines as well. This style is particularly popular in the humanities and natural sciences. APA is a very popular guide for scientific articles and research reports and is one of the most widely used, especially in the English-speaking world.
This article is about how to cite correctly in APA style. We briefly address the guidelines for layout, which are primarily for typesetters, the people who prepare a text for printing, towards the end. Often, however, instructors of courses themselves provide these specifications, so it is a good idea to check your own materials first.
What do citations look like in APA style?
In principle, the APA citation style does not differ from the German citation style. It allows both direct and indirect citations. However, unlike the German citation style, the references are not noted with the help of a footnote at the bottom of the page, but APA citation style is used in the text itself. In principle, this is initially done in two different ways.
Note: Footnotes in APA citation are used only to enrich the text with additional information.
Indirect citation in APA style
First, in indirect citations, the author can be noted after the cited passage in parenthesis along with the year (Author, Year). On the other hand, the author can already be named in the text itself. In this case, the year is noted after the author’s name (year). The paraphrase in APA style thus dispenses with naming the exact source.
If the requested citation itself has already been cited in the source from which it was found, it is considered a secondary citation. In this case, a reference is made to the source in which it is found. According to APA, the original work is cited in the text, but the reference (cited in author, year) is added.
Direct citation in APA format
In the case of indirect citations, the page number on which the cited passage can be found is also added. In this case, there are three possibilities. On the one hand, the already noted possibility of the parenthesis at the end of the sentence “citation” (author, year, p.XX). Furthermore, it is possible to name the author: Author (Year) “Quote” (p.XX) or else Author (Year, p. XX) “Quote”. Is conceivable. The main thing to note at this point is that the citation is part of the sentence and thus the period in the APA citation style is to be placed only after the source of the citation.
Important: If a direct quotation exceeds forty words, it is indented as a block. In this case, quotation marks are not used. The above rules are still used.
Thus, we have already covered the principles for citation in the paper itself. In the APA citation style, the heart is the list of sources. So, in the following, we will discuss the different types of media. It will be shown how these are correctly cited in the list of sources. Afterward, special cases and abbreviations will be discussed, so that citing in the APA format can be done without problems.
If a source has two authors, both surnames are connected with an &-sign or can be noted in the body text as in the case of single authors, but then connected by a capital “and”. Publications with three or more authors will have the abbreviation et al. added. This is Latin for et alii, which means “and others”. This applies to the note in the body text as well as to the parenthesis.
Otherwise, unlike many other citation styles, APA does not use the abbreviations ibid. or ibid. but always uses the full abbreviated reference, even when referring to the same passage. The same applies to the cf. frequently used in other citation styles. APA does not use this abbreviation either.
And how does the APA method work in the bibliography?
Of course, with the APA citation style, all sources cited in the text must be noted in the bibliography. In order not to cause chaos here, we will first explain the basic rules. Furthermore, we will explain in detail how to note the authors, because the APA uses clear guidelines there. Subsequently, we will discuss the various conceivable types of sources that are used in a scientific paper.
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The American Psychological Association (APA) has aÂ Code of ConductÂ that describes rules concerning ethics in psychological experiments, and review boards are in place to enforce these ethics. But in the past, the standards were not so strict, which is how some very famous studies in psychology came about.
Read about (and watch) the following psychological studies that would, today, be considered unethical.
Yale psychologist Stanley Milgram hoped to further understand how so many people came to participate in the cruel acts of the Holocaust. He theorized that people are generally inclined to obey authority figures, posing the question, “Could it be that Eichmann and his million accomplices in the Holocaust were just following orders? Could we call them all accomplices?” In 1961, he began to conduct experiments of obedience.
Watch the following video:Â Obedience to AuthorityÂ (12m:46s)
At Johns Hopkins University in 1920, John Watson conducted a study of classical conditioning on a 9-month-old baby he called Albert B. The young boy started the experiment loving animals, particularly a white rat, but when Watson started pairing the presence of the rat with the loud sound of a hammer hitting metal, Albert began to develop a fear of the white rat as well as most animals and furry objects.
Watch the following video:Â Little AlbertÂ (3m:26s)
Jane Elliott was not a psychologist, but she developed a controversial exercise in 1968 by dividing students into a blue-eyed group and a brown-eyed group in an attempt to give her students hands-on experience with discrimination.
Watch the following video:Â A Class DividedÂ (53m:05s)
Once you have watched and learned about each experiment, choose one experiment to study in more depth. Conduct research online to learn more about that experiment, and then complete the assignment.
Choose ONE of the experiments above and construct a 2-page paper based on the following:
Make sure that you cite your sources within your paper using APA-formatted, in-text citations, and the last page of your paper needs to be your APA-formatted reference page. Both your first paragraph and third paragraph must have citations.
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QUESTIONFEB 01, 2020
Activity: PESTLE Analysis PowerPointDue Week 5 and worth 200 points
Access to care, quality of care, and the cost of care are the top areas that hospitals are working to improve. The cost of health care and financing health care results in a national healthcare expenditure and sources of payment must be investigated. Healthcare costs are also inextricably bound to quality issues and therefore quality initiatives are linked to healthcare spending.
National Health Expenditures (NHE) and trends are reported annually by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Office of the Actuary, National Health Statistics Group, the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). The expenditures are reported and tracked over time using a standard format that identifies both the private and public sources of funds as well as the objects of expense. Reports are issued annually, two years following closure of the reporting period. See Table 8-1 in the textbook.
In 2014, NHE totaled more than $3.0 trillion, 17.5% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and that equates to approximately $9,523 person (see Figure 8-1). There are a number of interrelated factors that contribute to healthcare expenditures. These include aging population; new drugs and medical and diagnostic technology; emphasis on specialty medicine; large numbers of uninsured and underinsured; volume-based reimbursement incentives; and labor intensity.
Assume you have been working as the Chief Operating Officer (COO) and you receive a call from the Chief Financial Officer (CFO), who requests that the two of you work together on a healthcare spending project. Your first task is to conduct a PESTLE Analysis. Use Critical Thinking Skills and Metacognition to research current events in the macro environment. Then, prepare a Microsoft PowerPoint 10-slide narrative using a PESTLE Analysis. A PESTLE Analysis identifies political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental factors.
Your 10-slide PESTLE PowerPoint should follow this format:
Note: Writing Resources are available from Strayer University’s Writing Center, Tutor.com, and Grammarly.com.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
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