# The long run elasticity of demand for gasoline

Assume the long run elasticity of demand for gasoline is -0.35 and start with the current average San Diego price of \$3.00 per gallon. What would we need the price to be in order to cut gasoline use in half in the long run? b) Explain in a sentence or two
Assume the long run elasticity of demand for gasoline is -0.35 and start with the current average San Diego price of \$3.00 per gallon. What would we need the price to be in order to cut gasoline use in half in the long run?b) Explain in a sentence or two why short run gasoline price elasticity must be smaller in magnitude than the long run elasticity.c) Suppose the income elasticity of demand for gasoline is 0.2, the tax is \$1.50 per gallon, and that households making \$45,000 per year consumer 300 gallons per year. How much more tax will a household with an income of \$90,000 pay compared to a household with an income of \$45,000? First compare the level of taxes paid (i.e. actual dollars paid by the two households). Then compare taxes paid as a fraction of household income for the two households.

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 Learning Outcome:

• Understand the concept of process selection, forecasting, capacity planning, production forecast methods and schedule operations.
• Apply knowledge and skills to optimize production objective of maximizing profits using qualitative and quantitative techniques in related areas of operations management.
• Exhibit the knowledge of lean system, quality controls and green systems

Assignment Question(s):                                                              (Marks 10)

Question 1:

Workers should be given more control over the inspection for their own work. Discuss the pros and cons of this situation?                                                                                                              (Marks 02)

Question 2:

• What are the advantages of Exponential smoothing over the Moving average and the Weighted moving average?      (Marks 02)
• Explain the aggregate planning strategy?      (Marks 02)

Question 3:

Sequence the jobs shown below by using a Gantt chart. Sequence the jobs in priority order 1, 2, 3, 4.

 Job Work Center/Machine Hours Due Date (days) 1 A/3, B/2, C/2 3 2 C/2, A/4 2 3 B/6, A/1, C/3 4 4 C/4, A/1, B/2 3

• Using finite capacity scheduling, draw a Gantt chart for the schedule (Marks 01)
• What is the makespan?    (Marks 0.5)
• How much machine idle time is there?    (Marks 0.5)
• How much idle time (waiting time) is there for each job?    (Marks 0.5)
• When is each job delivered?    (Marks 0.5)
• Which department is the bottleneck?    (Marks 0.5)
• Calculate the machine utilization?    (Marks 0.5)

HR Mini-Case 1-1: What are Justifiable Reasons for Discrimination?
You are a member of a study group at your post-secondary educational institution. The group has become tight
knit having worked together for the past two years. The friendships that have blossomed have led to discussions
on a variety of topics affecting the lives of the participants and their friends and families.
During a break from studying the group was sitting together in the student lounge and a discussion began around
their personal experiences and those of people they know while searching for employment. In particular three of
the study group members believe that employers seem to be able to exclude people from consideration for certain
jobs at their own discretion and without any consequences for the employer. These students are in their second
year of business studies and have not taken any courses in human resources. They know that you are enrolled in
Human Resources Management and are eagerly seeking your counsel to help them understand the rules governing
these situations.
The first student, Julia, has a boyfriend who trained and studied for several months to join the military as a soldier.
He was near the top of his class on almost all physical and written tests and felt assured that he would be getting
an offer to work in the army. For years he had wanted to be a soldier and did everything he felt he could do to
ensure that he was selected. He received a letter from the armed forces stating that his medical tests showed an
irregularity in his heart and as a result he would not be considered any further. He was devastated because this
irregularity was currently not affecting his day to day life and was, therefore, considering an appeal.
Your friend Joseph had a serious car accident and is confined to a wheelchair and has limited use of his hands. He
is one of the top students in the financial field and is hoping to pursue a career in this area. He has observed that
financial institutions have wheelchair access, but he is worried about whether he will miss out on job opportunities
because he needs special computer equipment due to his dexterity issues with his hands. The equipment costs
about \$5,000 and annual costs of \$1,500 to keep the software up to date. He reasons that the financial institutions
may prefer to hire someone who does not need these accommodations because it would be cheaper.
Your third friend, Aamir, applied for a part-time job at a help desk center that provides troubleshooting support for
its clients. Associates respond to customer requests by providing over-the-phone technical support. Aamir thinks
that this job would provide him with excellent customer relationship experience, something he expects employers
would value when he looks for a full-time job upon graduation. Aamir does not work on Sunday due to his religious
beliefs. To his surprise, the employer said that he was an excellent candidate, but that they expect all associates in
their 3000-person operation to be available for a seven-day schedule rotation. The employer stated, “To make an
exception for you would be unfair to other employees who have to be available on Sunday.”
Case written by
Michael Kelly, CA, MBA, MEd
Faculty, School of Business, Nova Scotia Community College

HR Mini-Case 1-1: What are Justifiable Reasons for Discrimination?
You are a member of a study group at your post-secondary educational institution. The group has become tight
knit having worked together for the past two years. The friendships that have blossomed have led to discussions
on a variety of topics affecting the lives of the participants and their friends and families.
During a break from studying the group was sitting together in the student lounge and a discussion began around
their personal experiences and those of people they know while searching for employment. In particular three of
the study group members believe that employers seem to be able to exclude people from consideration for certain
jobs at their own discretion and without any consequences for the employer. These students are in their second
year of business studies and have not taken any courses in human resources. They know that you are enrolled in
Human Resources Management and are eagerly seeking your counsel to help them understand the rules governing
these situations.
The first student, Julia, has a boyfriend who trained and studied for several months to join the military as a soldier.
He was near the top of his class on almost all physical and written tests and felt assured that he would be getting
an offer to work in the army. For years he had wanted to be a soldier and did everything he felt he could do to
ensure that he was selected. He received a letter from the armed forces stating that his medical tests showed an
irregularity in his heart and as a result he would not be considered any further. He was devastated because this
irregularity was currently not affecting his day to day life and was, therefore, considering an appeal.
Your friend Joseph had a serious car accident and is confined to a wheelchair and has limited use of his hands. He
is one of the top students in the financial field and is hoping to pursue a career in this area. He has observed that
financial institutions have wheelchair access, but he is worried about whether he will miss out on job opportunities
because he needs special computer equipment due to his dexterity issues with his hands. The equipment costs
about \$5,000 and annual costs of \$1,500 to keep the software up to date. He reasons that the financial institutions
may prefer to hire someone who does not need these accommodations because it would be cheaper.
Your third friend, Aamir, applied for a part-time job at a help desk center that provides troubleshooting support for
its clients. Associates respond to customer requests by providing over-the-phone technical support. Aamir thinks
that this job would provide him with excellent customer relationship experience, something he expects employers
would value when he looks for a full-time job upon graduation. Aamir does not work on Sunday due to his religious
beliefs. To his surprise, the employer said that he was an excellent candidate, but that they expect all associates in
their 3000-person operation to be available for a seven-day schedule rotation. The employer stated, “To make an
exception for you would be unfair to other employees who have to be available on Sunday.”
Case written by
Michael Kelly, CA, MBA, MEd
Faculty, School of Business, Nova Scotia Community College

CHE-122: Principles of Chemistry II

Laboratory 7 Procedure :  The Chemistry of Metals: Exploring Reactivity

# Background:

Let’s consider single displacement reaction, where one element displaces another in a compound. This reaction can be summarized by the following general equation:

A(s)  + BC(aq)    =>  B(s)  + AC(aq)

Figure 1: A is a free metal (s), BC is an ionic compound dissolved in water (aq), B is a free mental (s), and AC an ionic compound dissolved in water (aq).

In this type of reaction, there is a competition between the two elements (A and B). During this single displacement, redox reaction one element loses electron (or electrons) to the other element.

We can simplify the reaction by writing net ionic equation, that will show only the electron exchange between elements:

A(s) + B+ (aq) => A+(aq) + B(s)

Figure 2: A(s) is a free metal that is donating an electron and dissolving into the solution-forming cation A+(aq), a cation B+ (aq) is accepting an electron and converting to the free metal B(s).

Above reaction occurs when free metal A(s) is more reactive then ion B+ (aq) in the solution.

However, in cases where free metal A(s) is less reactive then ion B+ (aq) the reaction does not occur.

There are four signs to look for, when analyzing a chemical reaction:

1. Dramatic color change
2. Gas evolution (formation of bubbles)
3. Precipitate formation (formation of the solid)
4. Temperature change

In this lab you will determine order the relative reactivity of four metals: copper, magnesium zinc and led by performing series of redox reactions.

The main objective of this lab is to enhance your understanding of relative reactivity of metals.

Before you start this laboratory assignment, you are encouraged to research relative reactivity series and read pages 651-653 in your Textbook. Throughout this laboratory assignment, you will be required to analyze a chemical reaction in terms of single displacement redox reaction. Be sure to record all observations and any relevant notes that you think you will need to include in your laboratory report.

Take a moment to formulate and write down a hypothesis answering the question what group of metals is more reactive alkaline earth metals or transitional metals?

# Pre-Lab questions:

1. Using your own words, explain what is a relative reactivity?

1. What is a redox reaction?

1. What happens to the electrons during a redox process?

# Procedure:

Preparing the Lab 5

From the course home page, click on the Virtual Lab Tutorial link to watch the overview of using the virtual lab.

1. From the course home page, access the lab environment by clicking on the Virtual Lab

1. After the lab environment loads, click ‘File’ then ‘Load an ’
2. Select the ‘Redox’ category,
3. Select the ‘Redox Reaction Series’
4. At this point, you have prepared the laboratory for the first experiment with the require supplies to complete your
5. If you haven’t already done so, formulate a hypothesis what group of metals is more reactive alkaline earth metals or transitional metals? as you will need to include this in your final

Performing the Experiment

1. Select the ‘Solutions’ tab in the stockroom if it is not already selected. Then, select the Erlenmeyer flask containing the ‘0.1M magnesium nitrate solution’ to move it to the workbench.

1. Select the ‘Solids’ tab in the stockroom. Then, select the container with ‘Cu’ metal and move it to the

1. From ‘Glassware’ select 250 Erlenmeyer flask, and 5 mL

1. Transfer 5 mL of ‘magnesium nitrate’ to the empty 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Record its temperature.

250mL Flask -VOLUME: 5.00mL- pH:7.00 -Temperature: 25 degree Celsius

1. Transfer 1.0 g of ‘Cu’ to the 250 mL Erlenmeyer’s flask containing magnesium nitrate solution.

1. Record the temperature, and any other possible changes to the reaction

250mL Flask -VOLUME: 5.50mL- pH:7.00 -Temperature: 25 degree Celsius

1. After you record your data, clear the workbench, and start again for the next solution/metal combination listed in the table in the Data

Data Collection Data Table:

 Solution Temperature Metal Signs of Reaction Net Ionic Equation Mg+2 25/white/7 Cu none Zn+2 25/white/7 Cu none Pb+2 25/white/7 Cu none Cu+2 25/blue/7 Mg Temp 37, color (blue to white), pH-6.8 Zn+2 25/white/7 Mg Temp 32, pH-6.2 Pb+2 25/white/7 Mg Temp 35, pH-6.8 Cu+2 25/blue/7 Zn Temp 30, color (blue to white), pH-6.9 Mg+2 25/white/7 Zn none Pb+2 25/white/7 Zn none Cu+2 25/blue/7 Pb Temp 27, color (blue to white), pH-6.9 Mg+2 25/white/7 Pb none Zn+2 25/white/7 Pb none

Data Analysis

1. Carefully analyze the Data collected in the Data
2. Arrange the four metals in order of their increasing relative From least reactive to the most reactive.
3. Write details justification for your selection of the

# Notes

This section should include notes about any observations or data collected during the lab.

Report Requirements

This section contains key information that must be included in your typed report.

1. Define the problem in a manner that is clear and
2. Identify the strategies and procedures used during the
3. Clear hypothesis statement and other potential solutions that identify any relevant contextual factors (i.e. real-world costs).
4. Clear presentation of data including any tables or other figures that are relevant to understanding your stated conclusions at the end of the report. Include any relevant calculations performed during the
5. Clearly stated results and discussion of possible improvements to the
6. Conclusive statements arguing in favor of your

Note: All reports will be graded using the rubric embedded within the course.

Here are some questions to consider as you write your report:

1. Does my problem statement make sense?
2. Have I summarized my strategies/procedures well enough to be replicated by an outsider?
3. Did I have a valid hypothesis at the start of the lab? Have I expressed this in my report?
4. Do my tables and/or graphs make sense?
5. Are my conclusions valid based on my supplied data?
6. Did I thoroughly summarize my laboratory experience in a concise, factual way such that the reader can understand my processes and findings in the conclusion section alone?

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