Timed session assignment

Timed session assignment
The assignment is about The Early Middle Age and you have two hours to do 12 Identify questions and the answers from 3 to 5 sentences. And you will prepare from study guide and I will have the question when I open the assignment so I need you to be with me so I can send you the questions to answer them.

Early Western Civilization to 1000 CE

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Spring 2018


Exam #4 – Early Medieval World (Study Guide)


Section I


Directions: Be able to identify each of the people/objects/places/terms/events below. In a short answer, explain why are they significant and how they influenced Early Western History?



  1. The Justinian Code
  2. King Alfred
  3. Shi’ite
  4. Danelaw
  5. Beowulf
  6. Pope Gregory I
  7. King Alfred
  8. ibn Sina
  9. The Council of Nicaea
  10. Córdoba
  11. The Vulgate
  12. Civitas Dei
  13. Charles Martel
  14. Muhammad
  15. Theoderic the Ostrogoth
  16. Carolingian Miniscule
  17. Le Chanson de Roland
  18. Druids
  19. The Venerable Bede
  20. Hagia Sophia




Section II


Directions: Be prepared to answer the following questions. Answer the question completely and include some discussion of primary sources, where appropriate, to support your answer.


  1. Why were the Saxons and the Franks able to establish kingdoms that lasted longer than many others?
  2. Do you agree with the statement that Constantinople was a second Rome?
  3. Write a diary as if you are a monk. What is your daily life like? Describe the people and places in your environment.
  4. Discuss the central tenets of Islam and its early development.
  5. Compare Celtic and Roman Christianity.
  6. Why is the reign of Charlemagne generally considered to mark the end of the Dark Ages?
  7. How did St Augustine influence medieval Christianity?
  8. Outline the major divisions within Islam and its impact upon the early caliphates.

In the absence of any work interactions and any changes in kinetic or potential energies, the
chemical energy released during a combustion process either is lost as heat to the surroundings
or is used internally to raise the temperature of the combustion products. The smaller the heat
loss, the larger the temperature rise. In the limiting case of no heat loss to the surroundings (Q =
0), the temperature of the products reaches a maximum, which is called the adiabatic
flameor adiabatic combustion temperature of the reaction (Fig. 15-24).
FIGURE 15-24
The temperature of a combustion chamber becomes maximum when combustion is complete and
no heat is lost to the surroundings (Q = 0).
The adiabatic flame temperature of a steady-flow combustion process is determined from Eq. 15-
11 by setting Q = 0 and W = 0. It yields
Once the reactants and their states are specified, the enthalpy of the reactants Hreact can be easily
determined. The calculation of the enthalpy of the products Hprod is not so straightforward,
however, because the temperature of the products is not known prior to the calculations.
Therefore, the determination of the adiabatic flame temperature requires the use of an iterative
technique unless equations for the sensible enthalpy changes of the combustion products are
available. A temperature is assumed for the product gases, and the Hprod is determined for this
temperature. If it is not equal to Hreact, calculations are repeated with another temperature. The
adiabatic flame temperature is then determined from these two results by interpolation. When the
oxidant is air, the product gases mostly consist of N2, and a good first guess for the adiabatic
flame temperature is obtained by treating the entire product gases as N2.
In combustion chambers, the highest temperature to which a material can be exposed is limited
by metallurgical considerations. Therefore, the adiabatic flame temperature is an important
consideration in the design of combustion chambers, gas turbines, and nozzles. The maximum
temperatures that occur in these devices are considerably lower than the adiabatic flame
temperature, however, since the combustion is usually incomplete, some heat loss takes place,
and some combustion gases dissociate at high temperatures (Fig. 15-25). The maximum
temperature in a combustion chamber can be controlled by adjusting the amount of excess air,
which serves as a coolant.
FIGURE 15-25
The maximum temperature encountered in a combustion chamber is lower than the theoretical
adiabatic flame temperature.
Note that the adiabatic flame temperature of a fuel is not unique. Its value depends on (1) the
state of the reactants, (2) the degree of completion of the reaction, and (3) the amount of air used.
For a specified fuel at a specified state burned with air at a specified state, the adiabatic flame
temperature attains its maximum value when complete combustion occurs with the theoretical
amount of air.
Page 781
FIGURE 15-26
Schematic for Example 15-8.
SOLUTIONLiquid octane is burned steadily. The adiabatic flame temperature is to be
determined for different cases.
Assumptions1 This is a steady-flow combustion process. 2 The combustion chamber is
adiabatic. 3 There are no work interactions. 4 Air and the combustion gases are ideal
gases. 5 Changes in kinetic and potential energies are negligible.
Analysis(a) The balanced equation for the combustion process with the theoretical amount of air
The adiabatic flame temperature relation Hprod = Hreact in this case reduces to
since all the reactants are at the standard reference state and = 0 for O2 and N2. The
and h values of various components at 298 K are
C8H18( ) −249,950 —
O2 0 8682
N2 0 8669
H2O(g) −241,820 9904
CO2 −393,520 9364
Substituting, we have
which yields
It appears that we have one equation with three unknowns. Actually we have only one
unknown—the temperature of the products Tprod–since h = h(T) for ideal gases. Therefore, we
have to use an equation solver such as EES or a trial-and-error approach to determine the
temperature of the products.
Page 782
A first guess is obtained by dividing the right-hand side of the equation by the total number of
moles, which yields 5,646,081/(8 + 9 + 47) = 88,220 kJ/kmol. This enthalpy value corresponds
to about 2650 K for N2, 2100 K for H2O, and 1800 K for CO2. Noting that the majority of the
moles are N2, we see that Tprod should be close to 2650 K, but somewhat under it. Therefore, a
good first guess is 2400 K. At this temperature,
This value is higher than 5,646,081 kJ. Therefore, the actual temperature is slightly under 2400
K. Next we choose 2350 K. It yields
which is lower than 5,646,081 kJ. Therefore, the actual temperature of the products is between
2350 and 2400 K. By interpolation, it is found to be Tprod = 2395 K.
(b) The balanced equation for the complete combustion process with 400 percent theoretical air
By following the procedure used in (a), the adiabatic flame temperature in this case is
determined to be Tprod = 962 K.
Notice that the temperature of the products decreases significantly as a result of using excess air.
(c) The balanced equation for the incomplete combustion process with 90 percent theoretical air
Following the procedure used in (a), we find the adiabatic flame temperature in this case to
be Tprod = 2236 K.
DiscussionNotice that the adiabatic flame temperature decreases as a result of incomplete
combustion or using excess air. Also, the maximum adiabatic flame temperature is achieved
when complete combustion occurs with the theoretical amount of air.
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