Utilitarianism and Ethics

Question Description

I’m trying to study for my Philosophy course and I need some help to understand this question.

 

Length

In the MLA style, your paper should be very close to 1,100 words long (this is about 4 pages). Remember, the emphasis for this sort of writing is quality not quantity.

Introduction & Conclusion paragraphs

Your first paragraph should be an intro or agenda paragraph (see an example below). Essentially, your first sentence should be something like, “In this essay, I will explain Mill’s and Bentham’s utilitarianism” or “This essay will address the central ethical principle of Kant’s deontology, i.e., the Categorical Imperative.” You should then should then provide an overview of what you will cover. Think of the first paragraph as a roadmap for the body of the essay. It should read like an outline of the body of the essay that was put it into paragraph form. You only have a few pages, so you shouldn’t bother with a long-winded, overly general ‘funnel’ introductory paragraph (i.e., do not begin your paper with, “Since the dawn of time, humans have pursued wisdom…” or “Throughout history people have always pondered about philosophical issues…”). Your conclusion paragraph should look a lot like the intro paragraph, but instead of “In this essay, I will do x, y, and z,” you can say “In this essay I did x, y, and z.”

Paper Topics (select one and only one out a, b, and c, i.e, out of Utilitarianism Paper 1, Utilitarianism Paper 2, and Kant’s Ethics)

a. Utilitarianism Paper 1

Section I: The Principle of Utility

After your intro/agenda paragraph, you should begin this section by quoting the principle from the PowerPoint, i.e., “An action is morally right if and only if… ” Explain in your own words how the principle works. Address the following: What does it mean to maximize utility? And what is utility? What are sentient beings? Is this theory merely egoism? Is utilitarianism a sort of consequentialism or deontology? Which philosophers are credited with authoring the theory?

Section II: The Trolley Cases

Put Foot’s original trolley case, the fat-man version (and if you would like the transplant version) into your own words. For each case, contrast what the theory (i.e., utilitarianism) says with common-sense or moral intuition. If there is disagreement or misalignment between the two, explain why this is problematic.

Section III: Mill vs. Bentham: High & Low Pleasures

Address the following: Why would Bentham think Mill was a snob? Why would Bentham defend a life of simple pleasure devoid of cultured and sophisticated taste? How is the distinction between high and low pleasures relevant to this debate? Explain how Mill’s ‘It’s better to be Socrates dissatisfied than…” quote is supposed to disprove Bentham theory? Following this section you should complete your essay with your conclusion paragraph.

b. Utilitarianism Paper 2

Section I: The Principle of Utility

After your intro/agenda paragraph, you should begin this section by quoting the principle from the PowerPoint, i.e., “An action is morally right if and only if… ” Explain in your own words how the principle works. Address the following: What does it mean to maximize utility? And what is utility? What are sentient beings? Is this theory merely egoism? Is utilitarianism a sort of consequentialism or deontology? Which philosophers are credited with authoring the theory?

Section II: Three Utilitarian Thought Experiments

Discuss exactly 3 of the following utilitarian thought experiments: Singer’s Oxfam/pond (explain why this isn’t a problem case for utilitarianism so much as it is an argument that we should help people even if they are not in close proximity). Rachel’s peeping Tom, the Titanic case, celebrities & hyper-luxury, the Better Call Saul case, the Omelas case, and Nozick’s experience machine. For each thought experiment, contrast what the theory (i.e., utilitarianism) says with common-sense or moral intuition. If there is disagreement or misalignment between the two, explain why this is problematic.

Section III: Act vs. Rule Utilitarianism

What is ‘rule’ utilitarianism (RU) and what is the driving force behind revising traditional or ‘act’ utilitarianism (AU)? Use the cracked smart-phone screen analogy to explain. How are rules of RU selected? How is RU supposed to avoid the problem cases of AU? What is Smart’s criticism of RU? What’s Smart’s problem with exceptionless, absolute rules? Use the Star Trek example in your explanation. If the rules of RU have exceptions, why is the theory still in trouble? Following this section you should complete your essay with your conclusion paragraph.

c. Kant’s Ethics

Section I: Compare and Contrast Kant with Mill, Bentham, and Hume

After your intro/agenda paragraph, you should begin this section by address the major difference between Kant’s ethics and consequentialism. Discuss Kant’s and consequentialism’s differing views on one of following: (a) manslaughter vs first degree murder, (b) the sniper/pope case, or (c) the fat man trolley case. Does common sense or moral intuition side more with Kant or the consequentialists in these cases? What is the central difference between Kant’s and Hume’s moral psychology?

Section II: Kant’s Categorical Imperative and it’s Application

What is the difference between hypothetical imperatives and categorical imperatives? What is the first formulation of Kant’s Categorical Imperative? First explain the loose version and then the formal one. Apply it to three of Kant’s 4 examples, i.e., promise-breaking, not developing talents, not giving to charity, or suicide. Then apply the Categorical Imperative to the following maxim, “To save time, I will cut in line at the grocery store when no one is looking.” Be sure to discuss any contradictions and duties that arise. What is the second formulation of Kant’s categorical imperative? Apply it to the following maxim, “To save 5 lives, I will harvest the organs of an unwilling healthy person when they come in for a checkup.”

Section III: Problems for Kant’s Moral Theory

Discuss are least three problems for Kant’s moral principle. 1. Do only rational agents have moral worth? 2. Is the CI is too strict? (I.e., discuss Benjamin Constant’s inquiring murderer case). 3. Is the CI subject to counterexamples? (I.e., discuss Hanser’s leaving the game early case). 4. Do consequences really count for nothing? 5. Can reason alone really motivate? (I.e., Could a belief or knowledge about right and wrong (Kant’s ‘pure practical reason’) motivate someone without a desire to do the right thing?) Following this section you should complete your essay with your conclusion paragraph.

Stay Off the Web, No Really!

You needn’t and shouldn’t ‘google’ anything for this essay. Use only the resources from class, that is, our lectures, class discussions, readings, PowerPoints, and Quizlet flashcards (but do not just copy and paste the Quizlet material! Put things into your own words). Unfortunately, sometimes students — usually out of desperation — cut and paste material from the Web. This is plagiarism and is serious (discussed below). FYI: You will have to submit your essay to a plagiarism detection software.

Introductory Agenda Paragraph (Example)

Alexa Martinez

Phil 60: Ethics

Dr. Scherbart

4 December 2029

Kant’s Inviolable Imperative

In this essay, I will address the moral philosophy of Kant, with special emphasis on his

guiding ethical principle: the Categorical Imperative. I will discuss this principle in general,

including Kant’s procedure for universalizing maxims and looking for contradictions and

duties. I will then apply Kant’s system to the four examples in his text, i.e., promise-

breaking, charity, suicide, and developing talents. Along the way, I will explain how Kant

emphasizes reason and intention, as opposed to Hume’s emphasis on desire and Mill’s

emphasis on consequences. Finally, I will cover the second formulation of Kant’s ethics.

Content

This paper should be entirely descriptive. This means that you should not criticize or add your own two cents. Essentially, you are demonstrating that you have a substantial understanding of your topic by putting things into your own words.

Tone

Keep your tone academic, i.e., don’t write too colloquially. In other words, you don’t want your paper to read like an email or text to a friend, lol, =). Also, don’t allow your biases to spill onto the page, i.e., keep a neutral and objective tone.

Quotations

Quotations are not required, in fact I would recommend against them. Remember, the main task of this paper is to put what we’ve learned into your own words. If you do use quotations or paraphrasings, make sure not to overuse them. The quotations in many papers, if strung together, would account for twenty percent of the paper! Avoid this. Also, any quotations or paraphrases must accord with MLA style guides, i.e., their citations should be in-text, e.g., “The Theory of Natural Law is now widely rejected because its view of the world conflicts with modern science” (Rachels 61).

Use of quotations or paraphrasing require a works cited page following the conclusion of your essay. In general, if you reference or generally discuss one of the readings or lectures, you need a works cited page, which looks like this:

Works Cited

Kant, Immanuel. Groundwork for the Metaphysic of Morals (originally published in

1785), edited for easier reading by Jonathan F. Bennett. Earlymoderntexts.com, 2005.

Web. Feb. 2017.

Scherbart, Ryan. “Kant’s Ethics.” Phil 60, Spring ’17, Chabot College.

Revision & Editing

Although the precedent in college is to wait until the last minute to write essays, this often is the main obstacle to good writing. Even the best writers don’t get it right the first time. Imagine a Hollywood director shooting a film on one take. It would be almost impossible to make it as good as it would be if you had redone several things and made adjustments. I implore you write at least one draft of your paper before the final draft.

Getting feedback can greatly improve a paper. Feel free to email me a draft before the due date. Anytime is okay, but realize that if you wait until a couple days before the paper is due, there’s a chance I might not be able to get to it. You can also get comments from a peer or friend.

I also encourage you to slowly read your paper aloud to proofread it. It can also be helpful to print out a copy to read aloud, or read a copy out loud while someone else reads along. (Or get your computer to do it!) These methods are good at catching typos and weeding out sentences that are confusing or hard to understand.

Grading

Fairly grading papers is one of the most difficult things an instructor has to do. While I hesitate to offer a rubric, here are the questions I keep in mind while I’m grading your papers:

The Content: What You Say (Most important)

Have you accurately addressed the prompt? That is, have you accurately described the view, idea, argument, problems, (or aspects thereof), etc.? Have you demonstrated a more than surface level understanding of your topic?

The Writing: How You Say It (Important)

Is your paper well written, i.e., did you follow the tips and writing strategies offered in this handout? Is the paper well organized? Did this person lay out the agenda early on? Did this person avoid the ‘common undergraduate writing blunders’? How well does the paper flow? Is it too confusing? Is the language too emotive or loaded?

Details (Least Important)

Are there grammatical, spelling, or formatting errors? Are there typos? Did the person properly employ MLA?

Late Assignment Policy

Turning in your paper late will be detrimental to your final course grade. For example, suppose you turned in your paper a week late, this could lower paper grade from, e.g., a B to a C.

Policy on Cheating & Plagiarizing: If you are found plagiarizing,[1] you will be dismissed from this class with a grade of “F” and face possible suspension from Chabot College.

[1] Plagiarism is the conscious or inadvertent failure to identify the contributions of others. It occurs when someone borrows any part of another’s work and submits it as his or her own work without crediting its author.


Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

fast coursework help

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

How It Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essayPLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH ASSIGNMENT DEN TODAY AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUNT

order custom essay paper
Order a unique copy of this paper
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

We value our customers and so we ensure that what we do is 100% original..
With us you are guaranteed of quality work done by our qualified experts.Your information and everything that you do with us is kept completely confidential.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

The Product ordered is guaranteed to be original. Orders are checked by the most advanced anti-plagiarism software in the market to assure that the Product is 100% original. The Company has a zero tolerance policy for plagiarism.

Read more

Free-revision policy

The Free Revision policy is a courtesy service that the Company provides to help ensure Customer’s total satisfaction with the completed Order. To receive free revision the Company requires that the Customer provide the request within fourteen (14) days from the first completion date and within a period of thirty (30) days for dissertations.

Read more

Privacy policy

The Company is committed to protect the privacy of the Customer and it will never resell or share any of Customer’s personal information, including credit card data, with any third party. All the online transactions are processed through the secure and reliable online payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By placing an order with us, you agree to the service we provide. We will endear to do all that it takes to deliver a comprehensive paper as per your requirements. We also count on your cooperation to ensure that we deliver on this mandate.

Read more

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Open chat
1
You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp! Via +1 817 953 0426

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.

Order your essay today and save 20% with the discount code VICTORY