Instructions: Peer Responses
125 Word Minimum
RESEARCH (Label this section)
CRITICAL THINKING (Label this section)
Motion Sickness: How the Vestibular Apparatus Enables the Brain to Interpret the Body’s
Position and Movements
Vestibular receptors are found in the inner ear next to the cochlea. Notably, they perceive rotational movement (head turn), translations (linear motion), and head tilt in relation to gravity. Consequently, it converts these motions to neural signals that can be transmitted to the brain (Saladin,2020). Further, the Vestibular system, the apparatus of the inner ear involved in balance. The vestibular system consists of two structures; the bony labyrinth of the inner ear, the vestibule, and the semicircular canals, and the structures of the membranous labyrinth contained within them. When the brain interprets the signals differently, it results in motion sickness (Saladin, 2020). Thus, motion sickness occurs when the movement an individual sees is different from what the ear senses (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention., 2022). Further, it is a common disturbance that can occur to every healthy individual. Notably, it is a psychological response to stimuli like air travel, sea, or road. According to CDC, one in every three people get motion sickness at some point, with children between 2-12 years being the most susceptible. Additionally, women pose a risk factor for motion sickness, especially when menstruating, pregnant, or on hormones. Also, individuals using medication and those who get frequent migraines are at risk of contracting motion sickness.
Motion sickness can affect anyone. It is associated with symptoms such as nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, headache, general discomfort, apathy, excessive salivation, warm sensation, and drowsiness. This means that when an individual travels, the disturbance makes them not enjoy their journey. Also, pregnant women will most likely experience motion sickness along the journey. I can relate. I have two children that get severe motion sickness. They can not sit in the back seat. They must sit in the front, or they will be sick every time. To avoid motion sickness, one can keep hydrated by drinking water, avoiding alcohol and caffeine, and reducing sensory input such as closing eyes or sleeping. Further, using distractions such as music and controlling breathing can help individuals.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, January 28). Motion Sickness | Travelers’ Health | CDC. Retrieved April 3, 2023, from https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/motion-sickness#:~:text=Motion%20sickness%20happens%20when%20the,boat%2C%20or%20amusement%20park%20ride.
Saladin, K. (2020). Anatomy & physiology: The unit of form and function (9th ed.). McGraw Hill Education.
How do we test a reflex? Typical reflex arc
Top of Form
How do we test a reflex? Typical reflex arc
Reflex is a trigger response from our body that gives our muscles permission to immediately respond to the stimulus instead of waiting for a reaction from the brain. The reflex arcis made up of 5 components: receptor, afferent fibre, spinal bord center, efferent fibre, and then the muscle and tendon itself. How do refelxes even work? It all starts when the receptor recieves the notice of pain or change done to our body, we are using paper cut as an example. The nerves then carries the pain from the affected body part to the spinal cord, in this case it would be your hand or finger. The connector to the spinal cord then passes the message from sensory to motor nerve to trigger a reaction. The motor nerve then passes on the message away from the spinal cord to the affected area, which would be your skin in this example. Once the message is passed on to the affected organ upon feeling pain, you then have the reflex or reaction to get your hand or finger away from what caused the paper cut. Saladin, K. (2020) It is important test our reflexes. Testing our reflexes helps determine if a person’s nervous system is functioning properly. When checking your knee reflexes, you should be pressing down on the dorsum of the foot as well as while tapping on the patellar tendon. Lees, A. J., & Hurwitz, B. (2019, January 1) Anyone can test reflexes as long as they position certain muscles and properly locate those tendons, you should have a response. The most simple reflex test would most likely be a muscle stretch flex. The knee jerk method is one of the ways to test a stretch flex used in many clinical practices. People may think that the knee is the only body part to react, but it also triggers other muscles to react including your lumbar region on the spinal cord & your quadriceps. A bicep reflex can also be performed by strucking the brachii tendon with the tendon hammer. An absece or lack of reflexes or any other reaction may be the cause of other underlying nuerological diseases and or issues. Newman, G. (2023, March 15)
WORD COUNT: 350
Do you remember going to the doctor or watching a movie and they are tapping on the patient’s knees? That is what this subject reminded me of! I use to play around with my knee reflexes in grade school thinking it was cool to see the reaction of my knee bouncing up after tapping it with my phone! People also forget that you don’t have to only use muscles and tendons. Most of the time, medical professionals go for the pupillary light! The pupillary light method is when you healthcare professional or eye doctor shines a light through your eye to see if the contract. This reaction occurs when the light shined is hitting the optic nerve cause the pupils to dilate.
WORD COUNT: 122
WORD COUNT TOTAL: 472
Lees, A. J., & Hurwitz, B. (2019, January 1). Testing the reflexes. The BMJ. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l4830
Newman, G. (2023, March 15). How to assess reflexes – neurologic disorders. Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Retrieved April 7, 2023, from https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/neurologic-disorders/neurologic-examination/how-to-assess-reflexes
Saladin, K. (2020). Anatomy & physiology: The unity of form and function (9th ed.). McGraw Hill Education.
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